Saturday, August 31, 2019

Chronic disease managment Essay

What is self-management? Self-care management is defined as the behaviour employed by an individual in managing and implementing the treatment regimen within the individual’s lifestyle routine and it recognizes an individual’s central role in managing chronic diseases (Costantini et al. , 2008). In sum, self-management is to help individuals collaborate with health care professionals to help themselves, by using strategies and proper interventions, to bring self-care into daily routine to help managing chronic diseases and to promote quality of life. How will you promote self-efficacy and autonomy for your clients in your practice? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects almost every aspect of patient’s life, both physical and emotional. According to Mok (2011, p12), several strategies identified in helping patients with CKD to improve nutritional adherence. These strategies fall into three categories: patient education, behaviour modification and organizational changes. These strategies also applicable in other treatment in CKD. According to Barbra (2011,p183), when patients’ disease deteriorate or towards terminal states, strategies of ending self-management and back to medical or comfort care were also mentioned. Nurses can apply these strategies by nursing interventions to help promote patients self-efficacy and autonomy. First, patient education strategies. Nurses should assess patients’ need and their knowledge and literacy level before providing education. These assessment should make sure patients are ready to accept the changes and the education received can be fully understood. Usually when patients are knowledgeable in their own condition, their self-efficacy and autonomy will be greatly improved. In addition, education should also be provided to caregivers because a lot of patients with CKD depend on caregivers in ADLs. During assessment and education process, nurses should be aware of using good communication skills, interviewing skills and make sure accurate information and related resources are provided to patients and caregivers. Second, behaviour modification strategies. According to Mok (2011, p12), several techniques can be used in behaviour modification such as reminders, self-monitoring, and positive reinforcement. Nurses can combine effective behavioral, psychosocial strategies such as periodical reminder by using telephone, email, regular appointment or face to face interaction. Nurses should advocate patients for regular follow up to make sure patients adherence to treatment. No patient is alone in chronic disease treatment, nurses should collaborate with patients’ family members and caregivers to help maintain compliance. In addition, nurses can assist patients in using self-monitoring techniques such as blood pressure monitoring, diaries, logs, personal health records to help track their health condition. Third, organizational changes. According to Mok (2011, p13), nurses can collaborate with other health care professionals such as dietitians and physicians to enhance compliance. Nurses can directly help patients in developing dietary plan and improve patients’ satisfactory, in turn, promote treatment adherence. Lastly, according to Barbra (2011, p183), when patient unable to perform self-care, giving up self-management and return to professional medical care should be acknowledged. Nurses should educate and assess patients’ and caregivers’ capability of performing self-management, making sure they are knowledgeable of serious symptoms and capable of seeking help when needed. What are indicators of successful self-management in patients with CKD? According to Mok (2011, p12), several factors may affect successful treatment such as lack of knowledge, hectic lifestyle, lack of decision making in own dietary outcomes and dissatisfactory of dietary prescription. First, knowledge deficit will make patients unable to choose proper food or make necessary adjustments, in turn, leads to failure in self-care management. Therefore, patients education, knowledge and ample resources provision are indicators of successful self-management. Second, hectic lifestyle such as fast-paced lifestyle or elderly depend on others are often unable to adherence to the prescribed regimen. Therefore, lifestyle modification, caregivers’ capability and support are also indicators of successful self-management. Third, lack of decision making of own dietary outcome due to depend on caregivers instead of patients might influence successful self-management. Fourth, dissatisfaction of prescribed renal diet will affect patients’ adherence. Therefore, patient readiness to change, communication skills, assessment tools and psychosocial support are also indicators of successful self-management. In sum, indicators of successful self-management involves every aspect of disease process and treatment. In nurses’ and patients’ perspective, nurses’ communication skills, interviewing skills, collaboration capability, staff training, patients’ readiness, patients’ emotional support, patients’ knowledge, problem solving techniques, etc are all indicators of successful self-management.

Friday, August 30, 2019

The Life of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia: Book Review

The Life of Catherine the Great: Empress of Russia By Carolly Erickson The Life of Catherine the Great is a 400-page book written by Carolly Erickson that details the interesting life of Catherine. The book was published in 1994 and printed by St. Martin’s Press in New York. Readers are able to purchase/check-out this book in a hardback copy with the ISBN of 0312135033 and also a paperback copy with an ISBN of 978-0312135034. The book features a full-length photo of Catherine in her royal attire on the front cover of the book. Erickson begins the novel about Catherine, born Sophie, when she was a young four-year old girl. From the beginning of the book, she gives an account of Catherine the Great’s life chronologically. Erickson used primary sources to collect information on Catherine and even used several autobiographies that were written in French by Catherine herself from different periods in her life. From these memoirs, Erickson was able to interpret that Catherine was a full-bodied, educated, lovable, woman who was born to a German family and occupied prestigious titles early on into later stages of her life. Carolly Erickson performed rigorous research and provided some of the most intimate details about Catherine from Russia. Erickson spent much time interviewing different informants (diplomats, guards, foreign visitors) and quoting material from journalists and others’ journals. With this particular book, a reader will definitely get a well-written biography of this infamous historical figure and learn a great deal about the times of Russia as well as unknown information about Catherine. This book was intended for readers that wanted to get a better grasp of Catherine the Great, but also can be an appealing piece of work that is out of the ordinary for readers not quite familiar with Catherine. Erickson made sure to capture her audience’s attention with the intriguing facts of Catherine’s being and managed to bring Catherine’s character to life. Catherine the Great of Russia was rumored to have been a crazy nymphomaniac believed to have had a hand in her husband’s murder. Erickson made an effort to dissolve her tarnished image and uncover who Catherine really was. She was very empathetic regarding Catherine’s reputation. Erickson discussed how Catherine dressed and her attitude. She explained how she married a duke at the tender age of 14 and how their marriage was troublesome. She also mentions how charming and intelligent Catherine was and provides insight on how she made helpful changes to Russia; but very little was written about how she ruled as Empress. Erickson demonstrated Catherine’s strength and willpower to rule without the presence of a man. Readers are definitely provided a vivid description of what is occurring so much that they will more than likely feel they were present during these times. Erickson reveals Catherine’s insecurities, downfalls, yearn for love and inevitable sorrows but also commends Catherine’s accomplishments that gained her fame and allowed her to become one of Russia’s renowned leaders. Overall, I enjoyed reading the book and discovered pieces of information that usually would not be mentioned in a traditional history class. I felt that the book was interesting in the very beginning and the middle until I reached the end. I was bored beyond tears and could not believe this was the same book that I started out reading. Aside from my anticipation that the ending would be just as exciting as the beginning, I learned that the book wasn’t as interesting because Catherine no longer wrote memoirs or autobiographies once she became an empress; which was closer toward the end of the book. The author, Erickson, obviously began reaching once she ran out of Catherine’s material. Because the focus of this book was personal, I feel that it would be useless if it was used as an educational tool. I feel that it should be recommended primarily for personal enjoyment. Therefore, I wouldn’t suggest this book to a Russian scholar, to someone who was interested in the politics of Russia, or to someone that wanted heavy details on other aspects of Catherine’s rule. Erickson is a great writer and an expert on writing biographies. I felt that she constructed The Life of Catherine the Great well, but I feel that she should be more conscious of making sure to keep her audience’s attention all the way to the end. It was a letdown and I struggled to finish the book because my interest diminished greatly towards the end. I also feel that, in the future, she should focus on all aspects of a person’s life rather than just the personal details in order to receive a well-rounded assessment. Instinctively, I admired Carolly Erickson for her dedication in finding first hand information on Catherine the Great (which wasn’t much) and putting together a well-written account of her life.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Compare and Contrast Sherman Alexie and Frederick Douglass

Different Worlds Same Struggle Sherman Alexie and Frederick Douglass both grew up in different time periods, in different environments, and ultimately in different worlds. They both faced different struggles and had different successes, but in the end they weren’t really all that different. Although they grew up in different times they both had the same views on the importance of an education. They both saw education as freedom and as a sense of self-worth and though they achieved their education in different ways they both had a strong will and a strong sense of self-motivation.Frederick Douglass and Sherman Alexie both grew up in different times and environments. Frederick Douglass was born in 1818 and was raised on a plantation as a slave, Alexie was born in 1966 and was raised on an Indian reservation, but being raised in different worlds didn’t make either of their struggles any different or easier than the others. They both faced judgment and discrimination agains t their races. Due to their different races they were both considered stupid, illiterate, and were thought to doing nothing with their lives besides working on a plantation or becoming an alcoholic and drug addict.Getting out of those types of environments and doing better things than what they were thought to do was just one of the many things that motivated them into getting an education. Both men had different ways of achieving their education. Sherman Alexie had Superman, his dad, as a guide for him. Alexie watched his dad do better for himself and his family than what a typical Indian was supposed to do. Watching his father read and educate himself was Alexie’s initial motivation for him to want to get his education.Frederick Douglass was one step ahead of Alexie in the fact that he had street smarts. Douglass self-educated himself, he had no one to look up to or to help him. Douglass essentially used the system to gain his education. He not only tricked white boys into teaching him how to spell and write, but he also used his own master’s, who did not want him to have an education in the first place, tools to help him get an education. In ways Douglass was already very smart and had already beaten the system that put him down. No matter the ifferent ways of obtaining their education or the different environments they grew up in, both men wanted the freedom that education offered them and had the same self-motivation to get it. Education was the key to their freedom, and not just physical freedom but mental freedom. With their education they were able to escape and unlock the chains of judgments that held them back and were able to give them a sense of self-worth. People listened to them and cared what they had to say and they became strong men of education.Alexie mentioned his father as being his Superman, but the true Supermen are him and Douglass. No one gave them the self-motivation to get an education they did it on their own. No one co uld force them into wanting to do better for themselves, they had to want it for their selves and they did. Alexi and Douglass were different but similar in so many ways. They both grew up in very different times, but faced all the same hardships. The both achieved things in different ways but they both made the same types of differences for their lives and did better for themselves.They showed people that no matter what you may grow up with or deal with in life, you can make a difference for yourself. Be your own Superman like Douglass and Alexie. No one handed them the key to unlock their success they did that on their own, and they taught people they could only do that for themselves. They obtained self-worth and freedom by their motivation for education, and they are people to look up to today. Dear Professor Smith, I think my writing has become better as I have moved along through your class. I was surprised on how much more comfortable I was with my writing.I really enjoyed wr iting about this topic; I thought it was very interesting. I felt pretty good about my topic paragraphs. TEAL has helped me a lot, and I tried my best to incorporate TEAL in my writing of this paper. I also really enjoyed the links for the websites that you posted on blackboard; I made good use of those and thought they defiantly helped me out with writing this paper. The most frustrating part of my paper was my thesis. I have trouble trying to make a specific, non-obvious, and debatable thesis. I try hard to make a argumentative thesis, but I have a lot of trouble with that.For this essay I was trying to use the point-by-point method that you had shown us. I liked how that method worked and thought it was pretty easy. I felt as though I did good using the point-by-point method and thought it helped to keep my paper from jumping around everywhere. I would defiantly like insight on my thesis because I mostly had trouble with that. Putting all three of those elements into a thesis is really messing me up because I have never had to do that before. Any insight you can give on my paper would be great, I want to continue to keep improving with my writing. Thank you, Katie Holt

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Growth and Development of SMEs in Indian Textile Industry Essay

Growth and Development of SMEs in Indian Textile Industry - Essay Example In order to understand further the framework and theoretical part of the study, this study will try to find other related information from books and academic journals. The topics will include managing acquisition, doing mergers, Indian culture, MSEs and other related topics. Methodology The data will be both quantitative and qualitative. The variable that will be of primary importance is the financial performance of small family owned textile businesses. This variable will be used to as the basis of information about the growth and development of small family owned textile business. This will be analyzed using inferential statistics by comparison of means to be generated by SPSS. Quantitative data that will be obtained from the respondents will be those that are related to financial performance. Qualitative data that will be obtained are those other information related to answering the research questions. Information will be gathered through personal interview. Questionnaire will also be used as a way to gather important information from the respondents. The chosen respondents are owners of small family owned textile business in the city of Surat (Guijarat), the textile hub of India. About ten percent of these businesses will be randomly chosen by the proponent. Random sampling will prevent bias and impartiality of information. Action Plan: The action plan of this study is presented in the Ghant Chart below. This is to ensure that the study will be implemented on a step by step process.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Ansel Adams Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Ansel Adams - Research Paper Example In this essay, I would discuss the various life experiences and natural aesthetic exposures that created a photographic genius, Ansel Adams. His congenial relationships with other renowned photographers such as Edward Weston and his travels to Yosemite and Taos Pueblo proved to be of great assistance to his prophetic vision of natural preservation. I will analyze particular photographs that defined Ansel Adams as a photographer using these influences in his long career. Lastly, I will scrutinize a particular photograph which holds much detail that Ansel Adams was trying to represent in his every picture. The photograph Line Crew Work in Manzanar looks like at first glimpse a commonplace and typical image of work life. But in a much deeper look, the photograph actually reveals even more that are invisible to the unaided eye. In 1932, a group of photographers from Bay Area were occasionally gathering for conversation and wine at the home of Willard Van Dyke in Berkeley. The group consisted of photographers in different phases of development. Ansel Adams, John Paul Edwards, Preston Holder, Sonya Noskowiak and Henry Swift were amateurs in their professions. Imogen Cunningham, on the contrary, almost fifty, took pleasure on a well-known reputation. Under the persuasion and example of the well-recognized Edward Weston, a member of the group, Cunningham was initiating the shift from Pictorialism to an acute, more realistic approach. The transition of Cunningham puts emphasis on what had unified the whole group in the first place: a resolve to perform photography as an independent form of art. Thus far, the group consented, photography had not entirely unshackled itself from the academic and artistic superiority of painting and literature: dominance somehow apparent in the mild-emphasis, narrative-controlled P ictorialist approach. Even the Photo Secessionism performed by other photographers such as Edward Steichen and Alfred Stieglitz,

Putting a price on carbon is the best solution for climate change Essay

Putting a price on carbon is the best solution for climate change - Essay Example e provisions for the trading of emissions at the international scope was introduced by the Kyoto Protocol and despite the expiry of this protocol, carbon trading is set to continue (Newell, Pizer & Raimi, 2013). Underpinning the need for carbon pricing is because most countries have no costs associated with the polluting activities and sources and that currently, there are no limits to the amount of pollution that nations can discharge into the atmosphere (World Bank Group, 2014). Therefore, carbon pricing can act as the regulatory mechanism for controlling the amounts of greenhouse gas emissions from all countries around the world. Some of the most common methods for putting a price on carbon include carbon taxation and the cap-and-trade approach (Grubb, 2012). The cap-and-trade approach involves the government setting up caps on emissions from a particular pollutant, for instance CO2, from a group of pollutants like power plants while carbon tax is the fee imposed on greenhouse gas pollution especially from fossil fuels (Hood, 2013). Thus, the aim of this research is to support that statement that argues that putting price on carbon is the best solution to climate change by encouraging the adoption of cleaner energy sources that are more efficient, cost-friendly and environmentally friendly. Though carbon pricing is being focused on as the solution to climate change, critiques believe that this is an ambiguous decision by the developed countries to escape the responsibility of being the major pollutants and share the costs with other countries that emit fewer greenhouse gasses (Jenkins, 2014). Some non-governmental organisations argue that carbon pricing is creating carbon markets that will give the stakeholders the right and permit to pollute. Besides, a handful of civil societies, Carbon Trade Watch included, have on many occasions criticised the establishment of carbon markets because they barely reduce greenhouse gas emissions at their sources and this

Monday, August 26, 2019

Design Proposal for a Product or Service Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Design Proposal for a Product or Service - Essay Example Simple facts such as this necessitated the establishment of Dines Company to provide high level of standard services only when need calls for organizations and institutions of similar management/ operation styles. Depending on if your catering requirements are for a large gathering or something as simple as an intimate party, we will always handle your event with the delicacy and standards recommended. We have a special state of the art kitchen in Florida CBD, USA; and a completely outfitted catering convoy which is meant to serve as our ‘kitchen on the go’, when any needs call for. In case of no cooking facilities at you party venue, just a simple notification will enable us come along with all the necessary supplies, equipments, and the right personnel. As allowed by our professionalism and vast experience, our team is specialized in ensuring creative fusion cuisine and making best choices from a variety of food traditions. We provide any combination as required by the clients, ranging from the very simple party appetizers to higher five-course meals. At all levels of our service provisions, we will always be pleased to have you work with us in making any suggestions on the menu, or rather go by your choice as is provided on the list of menu that our staff have already designed. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages are also available at all times for your events. All the necessary materials and requirements that are necessary in the provision of our services are at their best and healthy states with us. However, we may also work with the clients’ resources in case they require so. For any event, we always draw very close attentions to clients who may be having any special needs, their won samples to be used and ingredients’ specifications. In the event of our call by any the esteemed clients, we do provide very flexible platforms. Our

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Present an idea for a new business idea (coffee shop) in Sydney. The Assignment

Present an idea for a new business idea (coffee shop) in Sydney. The report will take the form of a detailed feasibility study d - Assignment Example Moreover, with the increasing demand for coffee among the people of Australia will assist in better development of this business owing to which this idea can be noted as an effective practice to attain better growth opportunities and generate income in a less risk and sustainable way. What Are Your Objectives For Your Business Over The Next Twelve Months? In its performance during the initial 12 months period, the coffee shop will aim to provide quality coffee and services for the people to have a better recess experience in Australia and thereby strengthen its foothold in the market with due significance towards its mission and vision. Moreover, with greater demand for coffee, the main aim of the coffee shop will be to be recognized as one the best coffee in Sydney in its future endeavors. What Are Your Objectives for Your Business Over the Following Two Years? The coffee shop, intended to be established following this market plan, after developing a better position in the market wi ll aim towards increased profitability as well as towards being reputed as a renowned coffee shop in Sydney over the next two years. ... The coffee shop will provide better quality coffee with enhanced fragrance or aroma and thus create a differentiation within its market sphere. The shop will also be equipped with a friendly atmosphere and staffs so as to give a high quality service to the customers. List All the Products And/ Or Services That You Plan To Provide In The Future In the future, i.e. almost within the next two years, the coffee shop with better positions in the market segment and demand will provide a variety of coffee products to its consumers. The products will include brewed hot and cold coffee products, pancakes with chocolate coffee fillings and ice creams with blended coffee aroma. Who Will Operate The Business? It is worth mentioning in this context that the business of the coffee shop will be based on sole proprietorship. Sole proprietorship signifies that the business will be owned by a single individual who will be entitled for all risks as well as profits resulting from the conduct of the inte grated organizational performances (Linn-Benton Community College, 2013). Who Else Will Be Employed By The Business Immediately? In the initial stage, the coffee shop will employ ten experienced staff, who will be liable to conduct various responsibilities in relation to the business functions and thereby render an effective structure as well as working culture to the company. To be precise, these staff members will be responsible for preparing coffee products and meeting the requirements of the customers to ensure consistent growth in customer satisfaction, which is often regarded as an essential constituent for the long-run sustainability of any new start-up firm. Who Else Will Be Employed By The Business In The Future? In future, with

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Compare and Contrast their attitudes towards motherhood, proposing why Essay

Compare and Contrast their attitudes towards motherhood, proposing why the differences and similarities exist - Essay Example She is shown as having love for her children but her abortions are quite ironic. The poem talks about a mother who is no mother (Grimes 2007). The attitude towards motherhood and children is quite loving but the act of abortion indicates that the mother never wants her children. She considers it a crime that indicates that she is fully aware of her act of abortion. From Atwood’s narration, it appears that both the women are one and have the same body (Tyler 1982). Jeannie is the protagonist of the short story and she is the would-be mother. The attitude towards motherhood is not given as it is something pleasant and wanted but something that has been imposed on the woman. The mother is shown as suffering. It is shown that mothers have a painful duty to perform in child birth and that’s all. The mother of â€Å"The Mother† never gives birth to a child but loves her children in her fantasy while the mother in â€Å"Giving Birth† gives birth to a child but shows a little concern towards the child and considers herself in a divided personality. Tyler, Anne. The Complexities of Ordinary Life: The Dancing Girls and Other Stories by Margaret Atwood. 1982. Retrieved on 9th February 2009 from

Friday, August 23, 2019

Paper narrative Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Paper narrative - Essay Example Removal of $10000 from regular salaries would transfer the lost value to training of stuff however a progressive strategy should be developed to implement this reduction. Training is also an incentive therefore justifiable to remove $5000 from incentive expense and direct to training. Under category employee benefits line item for compensating unemployed is not beneficial to the court removing $10000 reduces that expense. Removing $5000 from group insurance to raise unfunded training is also beneficial. Regrettably under the contemporary economic slump as well as high travel and tuition expenses it is not beneficial for the court for the employees to get out-of- state training. Coupled on the accumulative caseloads and workloads makes it even more demanding. Considering on job training is the best alternative such online courses (Financial administration, 2009). Minimizing cost is the major concept used in my proposed budgetary cuts. Line items that are related to employees are high ranking on priority proposed list for cuts. The cuts are applicable since employees are at the center of the mandated training. A system where the same employees fund the training is a viable approach (Financial administration,

Thursday, August 22, 2019

English essay on Of Mice and Men Essay Example for Free

English essay on Of Mice and Men Essay Steinbeck uses an example of symbolism in the form of Candys dog. Re-read pages 70-76, what qualities/ values does this dog represent? Which human characteristics could be represented by these qualities/ values? Candy is the oldest man on the ranch. As he is the oldest, he has more things to worry about than the others. He has only one hand and a womens name, and through Steinbecks writing, we know why this is, because he has lost his masculinity and pride. He also has a pet extremely old pet dog, which he loves and everyone loathes, as they think it is useless and suffering, Candy thinks otherwise and doesnt want it shot. Candys dog, which doesnt have a name and is incredibly old in the story, represents the fact that things that are unimportant are unknown to other people. This represents Candy as an old undervalued character that is slowly loosing value like his dog. It establishes that if youre an old animal, then youre in trouble. This is why Candy is so reluctant to have his dog shot because he knows what its like to be old and unwanted, but because he and his dog share the same qualities, he feels like they are close friends that rely on each other. In the book, he says Im so used to him, he said softly. I had him as a pup. This shows the closeness between the two. Candy cant bear to imagine loosing something he has been so close to for most of his life on the ranch. And has he and the dog dont have anyone but themselves, Candy feels that he will be completely alone after the dog dies. Because Candy doesnt want the dog to die before him, he wants to savour what he has got left. Candy and the dog are both living on borrowed time, which means as soon as the boss finds out Candy is too old to work, hell throw him, and Candy wont have anywhere to go. When Candys dog does get shot he feels instant regret. This is because he felt he should have shot the dog, and not Carlson. Candy feels that by not doing this, he has betrayed his dog and let him down. If anyone is supposed to take responsibility over anyone, it should be their best or closest friend. He wasnt there to comfort the dog too, he feels guilt and is let down by his actions. Some one else that is in the same position as Candy and his dog are Lennie and George. George being the strongest to the two is very protective over Lennie. He makes a point of always telling what to do, but for his own good. People at the ranch criticize George on his choice of friendship, but this is because no one else seems to have a close companionship except them and Candy and his dog. They are jealous they dont have the privilege to have someone to rely on. George and Lennie really do count on each other, as they are planning to get some money together and buy and farm so they can grow their own food and have animals. At the end of the book, when George kills Curleys wife, he runs away just like George told him to and hides. When George finally finds him, he knows Lennie is going to be killed by an angry mob, so he takes the matter into his own hands. He speaks to Lennie about how theyre going to live, and about rabbits, as Lennie loves them so. This way he can kill Lennie without a sore consciousness and with Lennie truly happy. The only other couple in the story are Curley and his wife, who has no name in the book. This shows that women werent the same status like men, and also like Candys dog, she doesnt really have any value to anyones life in the book, so she dies along with Lennie and the dog. Though she and Curley didnt have a good relationship, he obviously cared for her, and went crazy when she was killed. Because it was Lennie who killed her, Curley felt like it was his responsibility to kill Lennie. Curley new what his wifes nature was like, flirtatious and open. This would make the reader think that Curley was maybe jealous that it wasnt him that killed her, but Lennie, who is seen as the village idiot. In this novel, I think Steinbeck was trying to tell us that if you have companionship throughout the toughest times of your life, dont count on it, because one day the other person will let you down. He also wanted to show that whoever you take companionship with; you will have to take responsibility of their death. He wanted to show the readers that in a tough time, you cant have someone to reply on all the time you have to be independent and strong.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Indian Business Environment Essay Example for Free

Indian Business Environment Essay Abstract One of the major objectives of Indian banking sector reforms was to encourage operational self-sufficiency, flexibility and competition in the system and to increase the banking standards in India to the international best practices. The second phase of reforms began in 1997 with aim to reorganization measures, human capital development, technological up-gradation, structural development which helped them for achieving universal benchmarks in terms of prudential norms and pre-eminent practices. This paper seeks to determine the impact of various market and regulatory initiatives on efficiency improvements of Indian banks. Efficiency of firm is measured in terms of its relative performance that is, efficiency of a firm relative to the efficiencies of firms in a sample. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has used to identify banks that are on the output frontier given the various inputs at their disposal. The present study is confined only to the Constant-Return-to-Scale (CRS) assumption of decision making units (DMUs). Variable returns to scale (VRS) assumption for estimating the efficiency was not attempted. It was found from the results that national banks, new private banks and foreign banks have showed high efficiency over a period time than remaining banks. II. Reforms and Banking system In the post liberalization-era, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has initiated quite a few measures to ensure safety and consistency of the banking system in the country and at the same point in time to support banks to play an effective role in accelerating the economic growth process. One of the major objectives of Indian banking sector reforms was to encourage operational self-sufficiency, flexibility and competition in the system and to increase the banking standards in India to the international best practices 4. Although the Indian banks have contributed much in the Indian economy, certain weaknesses, i.e. turn down in efficiency and erosion in profitability had developed in the system, observance in view these conditions, the Committee on Financial System(CFS) was lay down. Reserve Bank of India has implemented banking sector reforms in two phases. The first reform focused on introduction of several prudential norms, major changes in the policy framework, and formation of competiti ve atmosphere. The second phase of reforms began in 1997 with aim to reorganization measures, human capital development, technological up-gradation, structural development which helped them for achieving universal benchmarks in terms of prudential norms and pre-eminent practices. The Financial sector reforms were undertaken in 1992 based on the recommendations of the CFS. Later, The Narsimham Committee has provided the proposal for reforming the financial sector. The committee also argued that ‘economic reforms in the real sector of economy will, however, fail to realize their full potential without a parallel reform of the financial sector. It focused on several issues like, releasing of more funds to banks, deregulation in interest rates, capital adequacy, income recognition, disclosures and transparency norms etc. However, financial sector reforms focused on improving the competitive efficiency of the banking system. The financial reform process has commenced since 1991 which was made the banking sector healthy, sound, well- capitalized and become competitive. The competitive pressures to improve efficiency in the banking sector has resulted in a switch from traditional paper based banking to electronic banking, use information technology and shift of emphasis from brick and mortar banking to use of ATMs. INDIAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN BANKING INDUSTRY Indian banking industry, the backbone of the country’s economy, has always played a key role in prevention the economic catastrophe from reaching terrible volume in the country. It has achieved enormous appreciation for its strength, particularly in the wake of the worldwide economic disasters, which pressed its worldwide counterparts to the edge of fall down. If we compare the business of top three banks in total assets and in terms of return on assets, the Indian banking system is among the healthier performers in the world. This sector is tremendously competitive and recorded as growing in the right trend (Ram Mohan, 2008). Indian banking industry has increased its total assets more than five times between March 2000 aThe overall development has been lucrative with enhancement in banking industry efficiency and productivity. It should be underlined here is financial turmoil which hit the western economies in 2008 and the distress effect widened to the majority of the other countries but Indian banking system survived with the distress and showed the stable performance. Indian banks have remained flexible even throughout the height of the sub-prime catastrophe and the subsequent financial turmoil. The Indian banking industry is measured as a flourishing and the secure in the banking world. The country’s economy growth rate by over 9 percent since last several years and that has made it regarded as the next economic power in the worldnd March 2010, The Indian banking industry is measured as a flourishing and the secure in the banking world. The country’s economy growth rate by over 9 percent since last several years and that has made it regarded as the next economic power in the world. Our banking industry is a mixture of public, private and foreign ownerships. The major dominance of commercial banks can be easily found in Indian banking, although the co-operative and regional rural banks have little business segmentIn the post liberalization-era, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has initiated quite a few measures to ensure safety and consis tency of the banking system in the country and at the same point in time to support banks to play an effective role in accelerating the economic growth process. One of the major objectives of Indian banking sector reforms was to encourage operational self-sufficiency, flexibility and competition in the system and to increase the banking standards in India to the international best practices. Although the Indian banks have contributed much in the Indian economy, certain weaknesses, i.e. turn down in efficiency and erosion in profitability had developed in the system, observance in view these conditions, the Committee on Financial System. Reserve Bank of India has implemented banking sector reforms in two phases. The first reform focused on introduction of several prudential norms, major changes in the policy framework, and formation of competitive atmosphere. The second phase of reforms began in 1997 with aim to reorganization measures, human capital development, technological up-gradation, structural development which helped them for achieving universal benchmarks in terms of prudential norms and pre-eminent practices. The Financial sector reforms were undertaken in 1992 based on the recommendations of the CFS. Later, The Narsimham Committee has provided the proposal for reforming the financial sector. The committee also argued that ‘economic reforms in the real sector of economy will, however, fail to realize their full potential without a parallel reform of the financial sector. It focused on several issues like, releasing of more funds to banks, deregulation in interest rates, capital adequacy, income recognition, disclosures and transparency norms etc. However, financial sector reforms focused on improving the competitive efficiency of the banking system. The financial reform process has commenced since 1991 which was made the banking sector healthy, sound, well- capitalized and become competitive. (CFS) was lay down. Liberalisation of India’s banking sector †¢ Liberalisation of India’s banking sector begun since 1992, following the Narasimhan Committee’s Report (December 1991) †¢ Important recommendations of the Committee were – [i] reduction of statutory pre-emptions (SLR and CRR) [ii] deregulation of the interest rates [iii] opening up the sector to foreign and domestic private banks [iv] adoption of prudential regulations relating to capital adequacy, asset classiï ¬ cation and provisioning standards Service firms such as ITC Hotels and ANZ Grindlays Bank found direct marketing very effective in retailing customers and weathering competition. †¢ The Indian banking system is growing in a robust manner. †¢ The Indian banking system complies with international standards of prudential regulation. †¢ The Indian banking system is opening up for entry of foreign banks. †¢ Despite the growth, Indian banking system is not entirely inclusive. †¢ There is good opportunities for the banking industry – domestic and foreign – for expansion to ï ¬ ll the gap. A decade after the Narasimham report was published and in the light of new challenges from the norms laid down by the WTO and Basel II, it is imperative to have a close look at the performance of banks in the last decade or so to assess the success of the reform process. INDIA inherited a very weak banking system following Independence. However, the nationalisation programme (1969) helped this sector achieve remarkable success in many respects. The stability among depositors, penetration into rural India and the consequent reduction in poverty and diversification out of agriculture were some of its laudable achievements. Given the predominantly bank based nature of financial system, the banking industry gained the reputation of one of the most protected in the country. However, in the 1990s a chain of events such as introduction of modern technologies, competition from new players in the liberalised market place, and enhanced emphasis on governance to protect shareholder interest changed the way banks conducted business. The Indian banking sector with its diversity of ownerships — State Bank of India and its associates, nationalised banks, private domestic banks and foreign banks also faced a similar set of challenges. Although the public sector banks acquired a dominant presence thanks to the regulatory environment, several of them performed poorly in the late 1980s. To preserve the soundness of the financial system, especially the banking segment, the Government set up the Narasimham Committee. The Committee (in 1991) made far-reaching recommendations that formed the basis of banking reforms. Some of the comprehensive reform measures suggested included: Stricter income recognition and asset classification, higher capital adequacy ratio, phased deregulation of interest rate, lowering statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) and cash reserve ratio (CRR), entry deregulation, and branch-de-licensing. These measures mainly aim to improve the efficiency/profitability of banking industry. A decade and half after the Narasimham report was published and in the light of the World Trade Organisation and Basel II norms, it is imperative to have a close look at the performance of banks in the last decade or so to assess the success of the reform process. Performance indicators Commonly-used measures to assess the performance of the banking industry are: Return on Asset (ROA), Operating Profit Ratio (OPR), Net Interest Margin (NIM), Operating Cost Ratio (OCR) and Staff Expenditure Ratio (SER). The first two are generally considered profitability measures, while the others, the efficiency indices. These five measures have been considered in this analysis for two sub-periods: Pre-liberalisation (1992-1995) and post-liberalisation (2000-2003). The total number of banks considered for two sub-periods were 64 (eight State Banks, 19 nationalised banks, 19 private banks and 18 foreign banks) and 87 (8, 19, 28 and 32 respectively). Overall performance improvement A comparison of performance indices during the study period reveals that the reform measures helped to improve the overall performance of industry. This is reflected in the improvement of all performance indicators barring the net interest margin (see Table). Interestingly, the ROA, treated as a proxy for risk-adjusted return, increased from (-) 0.28 per cent in the pre-liberalisation period to 0.79 per cent (against more than 1 per cent in other merging markets such as Singapore, Malaysia and Korea) post-liberalisation, indicating a significant rise in the ability of banks to convert their assets into net earnings. Another interesting aspect is that despite a marginal fall in the net interest margin from 2.84 to 2.73 (which might be due to policy change), the banking industry has managed to improve its OPR by increasing its non-interest fee-based income and reducing its operating costs/staff expenses. The evidence indicates that after the reform initiation period, the banks have increasingly been providing off balance sheet items such as derivatives, which generate major part of non-interest income. The proportion of operating costs/staff expenses has declined mainly due to computerisation and the voluntary retirement scheme. The property rights theorists believe that the private banks are more efficient than their counterparts in the public sector. This view is corroborated by the public choice theorists who argue that the specific X inefficiency factors are more prevalent in the public sector, irrespective of market conditions. Further, many cross-country findings report an increased government ownership as a deterrent to the development of the banking system. The Indian banking scenario seems to be consistent with the above, as the privately owned (foreign as well as domestic) banks seem to be superior to their public counter parts with respect to all performance indicators except the NIM. Despite a fall in their OPR and NIM between 1992-95 and 2000-03, the private banks successfully managed to reduce their operating expenditures, particularly the staff expenditures, thereby successfully maintaining their status. Among private banks, the foreign banks seem to be superior in terms of three out of five the criteria used. Within the public domain, the State Banks tend to be superior with respect to ROA, OCR and SER, while the nationalised banks seem to show better performance in terms of OPR and NIM. Thus, although there is a significant improvement in the overall performance of banks as one moves from the post-reform period to the late-reform period, one finds certain anomalies such as a fall in the NIM (except in the case of the nationalised banks), a fall in the ROA of private domestic banks, a reduction in the OPR of private domestic and foreign banks and a rise in the OCR/SER of foreign banks. Convergence or divergence Apart from the overall improvement across the board, another important criterion to evaluate the success story is to check whether the competitive force has led to any convergence in the performance of different ownership groups in the post-liberalisation period. Exposure to the competitive forces is often argued as a panacea to shake poorly performing banks out of their slumber. Although the public banks compared poorly with private banks during the initial period, they made a significant improvement in the later period by responding well to the new challenges of competition and consolidation, mostly following a gradual and cautious approach. The pay off is well reflected in the increase in their ROA, OPR and NIM. Some possible reasons for the better performance of public banks could be they still undertake most of the government borrowing programmes, thereby generating significant fee based income; the market discipline imposed by the listing of most public sector banks has also probably contributed to this improved performance; and ï‚ · the reform measures have changed their business strategies particularly greater diversification of non-fund based business and emergence of treasury and foreign exchange business. The study reveals that the OPR across four ownership groups tend to converge. The NIM tend to converge across private and public sectors while the OCR continues to remain significantly different across ownership groups. The above analyses indicate that the banking sector performs reasonably well with respect to the goals set by the Narasimham Committee, particularly in the context of the poorly performing banks and showing some encouraging signs to meet the Basel II norms by 2006. However, one should not go over board in reading these numbers to evaluate the success of the Indian banking sector, particularly from the perspective of a developing economy such as ours. Policy-makers should be extra cautious in giving free a reign to the banking sector in pursuing profit and risk based strategies. Recent trends in non-synergy based consolidation, growing disinclination to lend money towards productive purposes and to the unprofitable sectors such as agriculture, self-help groups, infrastructure and to small and medium sized enterprises, its growing engagement in non-productive treasury operations and conspicuous consumer lending will seriously impair the role of banks as public instruments of development. Therefore, maintaining a balance between these two objectives will remain a challenge to the banking sector for some time to come. Bibliography- * * *

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Timing Of The Special Warning Law Essay

Timing Of The Special Warning Law Essay Timing of the special warning is a matter for the interviewing officer. The warning can only be given in a post arrest, post caution interview.  [1]  There is no guidance in the Act as to when the special warning should be given but Codes E. 4.3C and C. 10.5A of the Codes of Practice are helpful. Code C concerns the detention and questioning of suspects and Code E concerns the tape recording of interviews with suspects: both state, when a suspect who is interviewed after arrest, fails or refuses to answer certain questions, or to answer them satisfactorily, after due warning, a court or jury may draw a proper inference from this silence under ss. 36 and 37 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994. The use of after due warning indicates that the special warning should be given before questions are put to the suspect concerning objects, marks or substances or marks on such objects or being found at a place or about the time an offence has been committed. This is a common-sense approach. It would be an unnecessary burden for interviewing officers to be expected to judge, or know, whether an answer to questions is unsatisfactory or not. In many cases, the police only achieve discovery of an unsatisfactory answer after further enquiries. If a special warning is given then any later discovery of an unsatisfactory answer could be the subject of a proper inference using the statutory provisions of ss. 36 and 37. The chronology of the Act is also an indicator of when the special warning should be given. Section 36(1) has four parts: a) is the fact of the possession of objects, substances and marks; b) the belief of the officer that possession indicates participation in an offence; c) informing the suspect of the belief and the request for an explanation; d) the refusal or failure to explain. Item (c) is clearly the special warning. The warning must therefore come before any failure or refusal to answer.  [2]  The Police National Crime Faculty states that test questions should be asked before applying a special warning in their September 1996 update  [3]  when they assert however, a special warning should not be used in any circumstances until after a suspect has failed or refused to answer certain questions (Code C10.5A). This assertion makes no sense and flies in the face of the intention of the legislators.  [4]  The legislators interpretation is clearly right, the suspect should be warned of the sanction that could be applied, before questions begin, about incriminating articles or presence at a particular place. Useful analogies can be drawn: police have the power to take intimate samples, e.g. blood for the purpose of confirming or disproving a suspects involvement in a recordable offence.  [5]  Before a person is asked to provide the sample he must be warned that if he refuses without good cause, his refusal may harm his case if it comes to trial. Is there any essential difference between this provision and special warnings? The warning comes before the request: the suspect is informed of the sanction to be applied if he refuses the request. Another analogy would be a section 34 caution. A person whom there are grounds to suspect of an offence must be cautioned before any questions about it are put to him regarding his involvement or suspected involvemen[t].  [6]  In this case, the caution comes before the questions. Again, is there any essential difference between this provision and a special warning? It makes clear and common sense to apply the warning before questions are put. Comments by Police when Solicitor advises suspect to make no comment. I agree it is right not to undermine the legal representative by stating to the suspect that remaining silent may not be in their interest. However, the Royal Commission study in 1993  [7]  identified that legal representatives at police stations were frequently unqualified and untrained.  [8]  The Legal Advice and Assistance Regulations 1989 permit delegation by a solicitor to such unqualified clerks. The Royal Commission study also found that the incidence of advice to exercise the right to silence increased at police stations where the adviser was wholly experienced.  [9]   The case law to date clearly indicates that a mere assertion that a suspect should not answer questions on legal advice will not save them from an adverse inference.  [10]  Police should not be passive where non accredited or probationary representatives, unsuited to provide legal advice, advise suspects to remain silent to cover their own lack of knowledge or experience.  [11]  In those cases, police should consider contacting the solicitor to give them the opportunity to make alternative arrangements.  [12]   Reference is made in the memorandum to R v Condron and Condron.  [13]  It is suggested that the judgement simply gives guidance at court when the defence wish to challenge the drawing of inferences. That is not the meaning of the judgement. It clearly deals with a solicitor giving his clients advice not to answer questions from the police. The appeal court dealt with that by stating inter alia If the accused gave as a reason for not answering questions that he had been advised by his solicitor not to do so, that advice did not, in their Lordships judgement amount to a waiver of privilege. But equally that bare assertion was unlikely by itself to be regarded as a sufficient reason for not mentioning matters relevant to the defenc[e]. Prepared statements presented before interview or on charge. The memorandum refers to detailed advice prepared by the Criminal Justice office. I have read the detailed advice, which appears to state that suspects cannot be interviewed after charge except on information obtained after charge from sources other than the suspect. I am unable to discover the origin of this interpretation. Code C. 16.5 states that questions can be put where it is in the interests of justice that a person should have put to him and have an opportunity to comment on information concerning the offence which has come to light since he was charged or informed he might be prosecuted. There is no exclusion on information from the interviewee. It would be likely to be in the interests of justice where, for example, a suspect produced a detailed written explanation, after charge, especially where matters are raised, not previously covered by the interview. Need to record information disclosed before interview/charge. I agree with the sentiment of the paragraph. It would be a mistake to set a precedent requiring written disclosure in every case. Legal representatives frequently assert that all the prima facie evidence should be produced before interview or the suspect will be advised to remain silent. The origin of this advice are the recommendations of the Royal Commission that such a requirement be placed in the 3rd edition of the Codes of Practice.  [14]  The recommendations were not ratified and no such requirement exists. However, Doctor Eric Shepherd wrongly included the recommendation as a fact in his advice to legal representatives.  [15]  Police officers should be given guidance to equip them to deal with legal advisors who make assertions not based on legal requirements. Conclusions I have only briefly covered the matters raised in the proposed memorandum. I am willing to provide information that is more detailed if required. I hope that my views will be accepted in the way they are offered, i.e. helpful and qualified. The enclosed book is an in depth study of the matters mentioned above. The book contains critical comment about the stance taken by the Criminal Justice Office and the National Crime Faculty. It is the job of a master to critically comment. As uncomfortable as it is for the persons concerned I believe the comments are justified. It is to be hoped that the bodies criticised do not treat the comments personally, thereby clouding their judgement. Terence D. Inch M.A. LLM

Chinese Pottery Essay -- essays research papers

Chinese pottery The earliest Chinese pottery of which we have any records is the Neolithic ware from the river plains and loess highlands of north and north-west China. It was made between 5000 and 2000 B.C. and contains bowls, jars, pots and beakers of low-fires earthenware. This pots were not turned on a wheel but were buildt up by what is known as the Coil Method. That is, a long sausage of clay was wound carefully up into a coil shape and this coil was smoothed and patted by hand into the shape of a pot.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  During the T’ang Dynasty China became the greatest and most widespread empire in the world . T’ang pottery is powerful and lively with sweeping sinuous curves while its decoration is often made up of flamboyant shapes and contrasting colours.   &...

Monday, August 19, 2019

Graduation Speech: Sit Down and Shut Up :: Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

Hi everyone, and congratulations to all the seniors for successfully completing the first phase of your life. We are all now independent and must look to the future. Everyone will go their separate ways, whether that be attending college, getting a job or traveling the world. While the members of our senior class may be taking drastically different paths, one goal is common to us all. That goal is to achieve success. There is not a person graduating today who does not want to succeed in the rest of their life, at least I hope not. So we all want to succeed, but what is success? Some people look for success and happiness by achieving great things in their careers. Others look for it by amassing material wealth and money, finding the best-looking partner or gaining power and recognition. Still others attempt to gain a sense of happiness and well being by going to the best parties and living wildly. While these things might seem to be good, fun or rewarding at first, those feelings will always be temporary and leave you feeling dissatisfied. Picture this, two old men are lying in a hospital within hours of death. One man is a multi-millionaire and once seemed to be very successful in life. He lived the high life and got whatever he wanted, but now he has no family or friends with him in his final moments and he is scared to death of dying. The second man is not rich, but he was always kind and lived a life of integrity. Loved ones and friends surround him, and he faces death with no fear, since he is right with God and his eternal future is secure. While the first man might have seemed better off from outward appearances, it was the second one who experienced true happiness and success. In order for us to live life to the fullest, we must force ourselves to change our priorities. While it is natural to be selfish and put oneself first, true joy and love will be found only when God and others are treated more importantly than oneself.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Art and Literature in MacLachlan’s Arthur For the Very First Time and Arnold Lobel’s Frog and Toad Together :: Compare Contrast Comparison

Art and Literature in MacLachlan’s Arthur For the Very First Time and Arnold Lobel’s Frog and Toad Together When it comes to an artist, the perspective of the environment will be very different from individual to individual. This leads to the difference in technique and style When art and literature are put together the picture adds to the words and shows what the literature is describing, rather than just something to look at. Although Lloyd Bloom’s illustrations of MacLachlan’s, Arthur For the Very First Time and Arnold Lobel’s, Frog and Toad Together can not compare to the famous Leonardo, the art in each is very unique. Bloom gives very sharp, detailed drawings, almost like a photo, where as Lobel gives loose, cartoon like drawings. These two books are very different in terms of reading level, which allows Bloom to create more detailed and real life drawing, where as Lobel can get away with a less life orientating, rounded picture, almost like a cartoon. Bloom’s illustrations stay consistent throughout the book with vibrant, life oriented drawings. The black and white, pencil drawn pictures, create almost an exact replica, like a photo, for an older audience which leaves little to the imagination. In the book there is a picture of two children sitting by a pond. There is so much detail in the picture that you can see underneath the water if you look hard enough, along with both children’s reflection in the water. There is an incredible amount of detail which is put together by small amounts of shaded sections and very fine touches of the pencil. This all brings the realism of the picture in order. Realism shows through when the text is read. This book is fiction but very well could be non fiction. It isn’t a pretend book, there aren‘t people with blue hair or even frogs that talk. The amount of detail in the book’s words go along well with the amount of detail in the pictures. The pictures bring and add to the real life situations of the story, and complement the realism of the words. Lobel’s pictures in comparison, are poor drawings and weak in technique. They lack specific detail , like small markings and create an overall round picture. This book was intended for an audience of grades 1-3, much different from the upper level MacLachlan book. Its use of colors and earth tones are dull.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Order: Non-commissioned Officer and Lawful Orders

Following Lawful Orders Lawful orders are given for a reason and you should always obey them. For starters you should always obey lawful orders because you took an oath to do so when you joined the military. A lawful order must be followed, and done so in a timely manner. If you disagree with a lawful order, you must still follow it; you are required to follow a lawful order before you are permitted to question it. All officers and non commissioned officers appointed over you are held responsible for you and are in the keeping of the traditions and doctrines of the armed forces of the United States of America.Discipline is the only way to get a large group of people to do something that could make or break them. The military is all about discipline, which is obeying a lawful order. Military discipline and effectiveness is built on the foundation of obedience to orders. Soldiers are taught to obey immediately, and without question, orders from their superiors. If you fail to obey lawf ul orders there are many consequences. You could get an article 90 of the UCMJ, which makes it a crime to willfully disobey a superior commissioned officer.Article 91 of the UCMJ, makes it a crime to willfully disobey a superior noncommissioned or warrant officer. Article 92 of the UCMJ, makes it a crime to disobey any lawful order. It does not have to be â€Å"willful† under a article 92. The military recognizes that respect for authority is what maintains order and prevent the eruption of chaos and is hence willing to set an example for all who might be tempted to oppose their leaders, by administering punishment first hand without any judicial representatives. The Army and our commanding officers have our best interest at hand and they put in place the orders that they do for that reason.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Law Factual Summary

Factual Summary Susie is a minor, who choose to meet friends at a park at 1 1 pm, when the city law clearly states that a curfew is enforced for anyone after 1 1 pm in the park. Officer ruthless enforced the law, but and the law also states that a person can ride In back of a camper with no seat belt. Jerry a minor with little to no driving knowledge skills was giving Susie and Kathy a ride. The total time from the Incident to when the truck got In accident was 1 hour and a half, Susie lived a mile from the park.The officer loud of either escorted Susie home thus not causing the Incident, or let her walk. But In the end each person Is entitled to their mistakes. Legal Issues In the case of Susie v City of Elsewhere and Officer Ruthless, Is It negligence In the part of Susie and her friends knowing that they were violating the 1 1 :Mom curfew for being In the park? Was Officer Ruthless also at fault for neglecting the comment that Susie stated to him, â€Å"she only lived a few block s from the park†, and not escorting or letting her go home to prevent the accident?The final questions, I as a Judge would ask, is during the one and half hour time span from when the minors were told to leave the park by Officer Ruthless, What events occurred to make the driver get in an accident? Did the minors partake in illegal activities, I. E. Drinking and driving, or illegal drugs? Was there a toxicology report filed from the scene of the crime? There are many avenues of approach that I as a Judge would need to know such as reports to properly handle and file who is at fault in this case.Without the actual evidence from both sides, it will be unclear to know who is liable and who is not. Legal Concept This case is based on the legal concept of minors breaking the law, which in this matter was the 1 1 :Mom curfew. They had known of this law and yet morally choose not to obey it, and instead of going home as instructed by Officer Ruthless, Susie Marks, and her two friends decided to hang out for another hour and a half, thus resulting in the accident. In the state which this case is filed in, the law states it is k to have a passenger ride in the cab of the truck without a settable.Certain laws need to be revamped since this is clearly now a safe way to transport passengers, especially after midnight, when most accidents tend to occur. Analysis/Conclusion With properly reading the statements from both Susie Marks and Officer Ruthless, It Is clear that even though the Officer had told all the parties involved with Susie to leave, they choose to do other activities not relating to the park. The City of Elsewhere and Officer Ruthless cannot be at fault for the time between 1 1 :MOM and the time of the accident.The officer did his Job by obeying the laws and guidelines and Susie and her friends clearly did what they wanted to and as a result got Involved In the accident. Justice is blind but It Is the duty of each Individual to look out for one another In the Interest of life. Negligence on Susie Marks and her friends' behalf led to the accident. Law Factual Summary By greengrocery's ruthless enforced the law, but and the law also states that a person can ride in back was giving Susie and Kathy a ride.The total time from the incident to when the truck to in accident was 1 hour and a half, Susie lived a mile from the park. The officer could of either escorted Susie home thus not causing the incident, or let her walk, but in the end each person is entitled to their mistakes. Legal Issues In the case of Susie v City of Elsewhere and Officer Ruthless, is it negligence in the part of Susie and her friends knowing that they were violating the 1 1 :Mom curfew for being in the park? Was Officer Ruthless also at fault for neglecting the comment especially after midnight, when most accidents tend to occur.Analysis/Conclusion With properly reading the statements from both Susie Marks and Officer Ruthless, it is clear that even though the Off icer had told all the parties involved with Susie to and Officer Ruthless cannot be at fault for the time between 1 1 :MOM and the time of and her friends clearly did what they wanted to and as a result got involved in the accident. Justice is blind but it is the duty of each individual to look out for one another in the interest of life. Negligence on Susie Marks and her friends' behalf led

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Death of Hector Summary Essay

Except for Hector, the Trojans are inside the walls of Troy. Apollo turns to Achilles to tell him he is wasting his time pursing a god since he can’t kill him. Achilles is angry, but turns around to return to Troy where Priam is the first to spot him. He tells Hector he will be killed since Achilles is much stronger. If not killed he will be sold into slavery as has already happened to others of Priam’s sons. Priam can’t dissuade Hector, even when his wife Hecuba joins the effort. Hector gives some thought to going inside but fears the ridicule of Polydamas, who had given sage advice the day before. Since Hector wants to die in glory, he has a better chance facing Achilles. He thinks about giving Achilles Helen and the treasure and adding to it an even split of the treasure of Troy, but Hector rejects these ideas realizing Achilles will just cut him down, and there would be no glory in that. As Achilles bears down on Hector, Hector begins to lose his nerve. Hecto r runs towards the Scamander River (Xanthus). The two warriors race three times around Troy. Zeus looks down and feels sorry for Hector, but tells Athena to go down and do what she wants without restraint. Achilles is chasing Hector with no chance of reprieve unless Apollo steps in (which he does not do). Athena tells Achilles to stop running and face Hector. She adds that she will persuade Hector to do the same. Athena disguises herself as Deiphobus and tells Hector the two of them should go fight Achilles together. Hector is thrilled to see his brother has dared to come out of Troy to help him. Athena uses the cunning of disguise until Hector addresses Achilles to say it’s time to end the chase. Hector requests a pact that they will return each other’s body whoever dies. Achilles says there are no binding oaths between lions and men. He adds that Athena will kill Hector in just a moment. Achilles hurls his spear, but Hector ducks and it flies past. Hector does not see Athena retrieve the spear and return it to Achilles. Hector taunts Achilles that he didn’t know the future after all. Then Hector says it’s his turn. He throws his spear, which hits, but glances off the shield. He calls to Deiphobus to bring his lance, but, of course, there is no Deiphobus. Hector realizes he has been tricked by Athena and that his end is near. Hector wants a glorious death, so he draws his sword and swoops down on Achilles, who charges with his spear. Achilles knows the armor Hector is wearing and puts that knowledge to use, finding the weak point at the collarbone. He pierces Hector’s neck, but not his windpipe. Hector falls down while Achilles taunts him with the fact that his body will be mutilated by dogs and birds. Hector begs him not to, but to let Priam ransom him. Achilles tells him to stop begging, that if he could, he would eat the corpse himself, but since he can’t, he’ll let the dogs do it, instead. Hector curses him, telling him Paris will kill him at the Scaean Gates with the help of Apollo. Then Hector dies. Achilles pokes holes in Hector’s ankles, ties a strap through them and attaches them to the chariot so he can drag the body in the dust. Hecuba and Priam cry while Andromache is asking her attendants to draw a bath for her husband. Then she hears a piercing wail from Hecuba, suspects what has happened, emerges, looks down from the rampart where she witnesses her husband’s corpse being dragged, and faints. She laments that her son Astyanax will have neither land nor family and so will be despised. She has the women burn the store of Hector’s clothing in his honor.

Retaining Top Performers During Change

According to Judith Ross, â€Å"coping with change is a permanent part of the manager’s job†. Since this is an established fact, one would expect that manager would strive at retaining the top performers – those that have been instrumental to the growth of the company before the period of change. However, it would be shocking to note that often times than not, these top performers are not retained. The question here is why do managers fail to retain these strategic employees?Generally, one thing that happens when there is a change in the organization, the leaders or managers are often â€Å"too busy† handling matters that concern the paper work. Thus, they rarely communicate the essential information these top performers who in turn make different interpretations to what they are seeing. In periods of change, the managers are under pressure and they seem to worry more on the structure rather than those employees that made the structure.Therefore, Top perfo rmers are left to navigate their way through the happenings in the company and because these set of employees are passionate about their careers; they are forced to look elsewhere because they see no future, assurance in the restructuring. Furthermore, when managers do not communicate effectively to their employees, especially those top performers, there are unintended consequences. From my experience from the paper, I discovered that in times of change, when managers do not communicate the specifics to their employees, they are forced to imagine the worst that can happen and decide on this.These consequences should be a source of concern to organizations because these top performers are the backbone of the organization. Personally, if I were the manager in my organization, whenever there is change, the first people I would do is to sell the change to my top performers. I would explain the why, the how, and the specifics. I would immediately involve them in the change. Reference: Ro ss, J. (2006). Retaining top performers during change. Harvard Business Review.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

An overview of scrum methodology

An overview of scrum methodology Software development organizations have become more interested in agile methodologies, whose focus is client collaboration, individual value, and adaptation to change. Scrum is a framework within which people can address complex adaptive problems, while productively and creatively delivering products of the highest possible value. Scrum makes clear the relative efficacy of your product management and development practices so that you can improve. The Scrum framework consists of Scrum Teams and their associated roles, events, artifacts, and rules. Each component within the framework serves a specific purpose and is essential to Scrum’s success and usage. What is the scrum? Scrum is a framework for managing work with an emphasis on software development. It is designed for teams of three to nine developers who break their work into actions that can be completed within time-boxed iterations, called sprints (typically two-weeks) and track progress and re-plan in 15-minute stand-up meetings called daily scrums. Approaches to coordinating the work of multiple scrum teams in larger organizations include Large-Scale Scrum, Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) and Scrum of Scrums, among others. Scrum values:- Scrum is a feedback-driven empirical approach which is, like all empirical process control, underpinned by the three pillars of transparency, inspection, and adaptation. All work within the Scrum framework should be visible to those responsible for the outcome: the process, the workflow, progress, etc. In order to make these things visible, scrum teams need to frequently inspect the product being developed and how well the team is working. With frequent inspection, the team can spot when their work deviates outside of acceptable limits and adapt their process or the product under development.[18] These three pillars require trust and openness in the team, which the following five values of Scrum enable:[14] Commitment: Team members individually commit to achieving their team goals, each and every sprint. Courage: Team members know they have the courage to work through conflict and challenges together so that they can do the right thing. Focus: Team members focus exclusively on their team goals and the sprint backlog; there should be no work done other than through their backlog. Openness: Team members and their stakeholders agree to be transparent about their work and any challenges they face. Respect: Team members respect each other to be technically capable and to work with good intent. Scrum roles:- The three roles defined in scrum are the ScrumMaster,the product owner, and the Team (which consists of Team members). The people who fulfill these roles work together closely, on a daily basis, to ensure the smooth flow of information and the quick resolution of issues. ScrumMaster The ScrumMaster (sometimes written â€Å"Scrum Master,† although the official term has no space after â€Å"Scrum†) is the keeper of the process. The ScrumMaster is responsible for making the process run smoothly, for removing obstacles that impact productivity, and for organizing and facilitating the critical meetings. The ScrumMasters responsibilities include Removing the barriers between the Development Team and the Product Owner so that the Product Owner directly drives development. Teach the Product Owner how to maximize return on investment (ROI), and meet his/her objectives through Scrum. Improve the lives of the development Team by facilitating creativity and empowerment. Improve the productivity of the development Team in any way possible. Improve the engineering practices and tools so that each increment of functionality is potentially shippable. Keep information about the Team’s progress up to date and visible to all parties. In practical terms, the ScrumMaster needs to understand Scrum well enough to train and mentor the other roles and educate and assist other stakeholders who are involved in the process. The ScrumMaster should maintain a constant awareness of the status of the project (its progress to date) relative to the expected progress, investigate and facilitate resolution of any roadblocks that hold back progress, and generally be flexible enough to identify and deal with any issues that arise, in any way that is required. The ScrumMaster must protect the Team from disturbance from other people by acting as the interface between the two. The ScrumMaster does not assign tasks to Team members, a task assignment is a Team responsibility. The ScrumMaster’s general approach towards the Team is to encourage and facilitate their decision-making and problem-solving capabilities so that they can work with increasing efficiency and the decreasing need for supervision. The goal is to have a team tha t is not only empowered to make important decisions but does so well and routinely. Product Owner The Product Owner is the keeper of the requirements. The Product Owner provides the â€Å"single source of truth† for the Team regarding requirements and their planned order of implementation. In practice, the Product Owner is the interface between the business, the customers, and their product related needs on one side, and the Team on the other. The Product Owner buffers the Team from the feature and bug-fix requests that come from many sources and is the single point of contact for all questions about product requirements. Product Owner works closely with the team to define the user-facing and technical requirements, to document the requirements as needed, and to determine the order of their implementation. Product Owner maintains the Product Backlog (which is the repository for all of this information), keeping it up to date and at the level of detail and quality, the Team requires. The Product Owner also sets the schedule for releasing completed work to customers and make s the final call as to whether implementations have the features and quality required for release. Team The Team is a self-organizing and cross-functional group of people who do the hands-on work of developing and testing the product. Since the Team is responsible for producing the product, it must also have the authority to make decisions about how to perform the work. The Team is therefore self-organizing: Team members decide how to break work into tasks, and how to allocate tasks to individuals, throughout the Sprint. The Team size should be kept in the range from five to nine people, if possible. (A larger number make communication difficult, while a smaller number leads to low productivity and fragility.) Note: A very similar term, â€Å"Scrum Team,† refers to the Team plus the ScrumMaster and Product Owner. Scrum pros:- Scrum can help teams complete project deliverables quickly and efficiently: Scrum ensures effective use of time and money Large projects are divided into easily manageable sprints Developments are coded and tested during the sprint review Works well for fast-moving development projects The team gets clear visibility through scrum meetings Scrum, being agile, adopts feedback from customers and stakeholders Short sprints enable changes based on feedback a lot more easily The individual effort of each team member is visible during daily scrum meetings Scrum cons:-Nothing is perfect, and the Scrum methodology is no exception. In some cases, Scrum is combined with other project management techniques that can help resolve some of these drawbacks: Scrum often leads to scope creep, due to the lack of a definite end-date The chances of project failure are high if individuals arent very committed or cooperative Adopting the Scrum framework in large teams is challenging The framework can be successful only with experienced team members Daily meetings sometimes frustrate team members If any team member leaves in the middle of a project, it can have a huge negative impact on the project Quality is hard to implement until the team goes through the aggressive testing process Scrum process:- Needless to say, proper planning and smart decision making can help you get past these disadvantages with the Scrum methodology. For example, in larger teams, each member needs to have defined roles and responsibilities with definite goals, so that there is no compromise on quality and no excuse for failure. This will keep the team focused to project goals. Plus, the ScrumMaster needs to guide the team effectively to avoid pitfalls and ensure 100% project success.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Listening Barriers in Communication Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Listening Barriers in Communication - Assignment Example The mentor that was to orient the course stood before us to elaborate the course content and what one may do in order to ensure success in the course (Zhang, 2012). There were many people attending the orientation program and different ideas were brought on board with regard to the course. The course was a simple one and anyone could predict the requirement that would be needed in order to handle the course contents. This situation was among the relevant areas that I have found significant listening barriers due to some self-concept factors (Zhang, 2012). There are two central factors that I regard were of essentiality to promoting the listening barriers in the situation. The fact that I was able to predict or know the answer to what the speaker had to say next is a major barrier to the situation I had during the mentorship program. This barrier involves the self-thinking that one has already known with certainty what the speaker wants to say or elaborate (Zhang, 2012). This element in communication implies a judgment in the ways one relays ideas in verbal form. This factor is a barrier because it makes the listener eager to complete the sentences that the speaker intends to make. This fact of impatience can make an individual to cut short the message that the speaker intends to relay to the audience (Zhang, 2012). The listeners can also disagree with the speaker even before he or she completes the intended message that was to be transmitted. This is against the receptive mind that is expected of a good listener in everyday situations . Another listening barrier that was in connection with the situation involved in course mentorship relates to desire to impress or influence the speaker. As aforementioned, the course was a simple one and anybody could predict the inherent activities. This fact made me has an attitude of intending to impress or influence the actions of the speaker (Zhang, 2012).  

Monday, August 12, 2019

Asian values and Human Rights Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Asian values and Human Rights - Essay Example However, he pointed out that sometimes externalities result from these struggles. For example, upholding property rights has often resulted to the suppression of the masses by the relatively few wealthy individuals who actually owned these property rights. Problems encountered in the advocacy of "human rights" stem from its own structure. The idea of what is right and wrong is very subjective and often times depends on the cultural and value context of the point of view. The "Asian values" point of view further complicates the on going debate on the meaning of human rights. Asian values, mainly Confucian values, question the increasing use of "bureaucratic-technical vocabulary emphasizing law, abstract logic, and the formation of policy statements" (Dallmayr 180) regarding human rights. Mote, as a student of China's civilization history, clearly admired the Chinese civilizations and their contribution to the modern society. However, he did criticize how the past is being regarded. He emphasised that the point of civilization, if ever there is one, is "to [realise] the maximum from this present moment, not to blindly repeat some past nor to forgo the present in preparation for some anticipated future" (Mote 6). It is apparent that this belief was one of the underlying factors why Frederick Mote was fascinated by the Chinese civilizations. According to him all Chinese intellectual traditions shared this fundamental belief about the purpose of civilization and even that of the existence of man. This fundamental concept and belief helped the development of Buddhism in China which he said "frustrated Christianity" (Mote 6). Perhaps so, but the point is it appears that the Chinese civilizations were "unitary" in that they applied the same standards of value to all human activities, and hence the arts were expected to conform to the moral fabric as dictated by society. This was the singular reason why the arts of these civilizations never developed the art-for-art's-sake which was a common element in Western fine arts within the same period. Nevertheless, these arts should be judged by the standards within the national norms of the past rather than through different norms. Economic Perspectives Max Weber, A selection of texts, edited by S. Andreski. London: George Allen and Unwinn 1983, pp. 111-125. First, Andreski's selection of texts fro Max Weber's writings surprisingly present a very coherent Weber which is in contrast to his usual obscure and difficult to understand writings. Clearly, Weber was very interested on the reasons why capitalism failed to developed in the Ancient World. Specifically, the text was concerned on why has modern capitalism emerged in the western world and not in the Ancient World, say China or India, at the same time For Max Weber, the Puritans believed only activity signifies and increases the glory of God, hence an

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Religion and Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Religion and Society - Essay Example This led to the conclusion that Protestantism in Europe helped to shape capitalism thereby having a profound effect on economic systems across Europe. I hold the opinion that religion and economy are closely linked and both have a major contribution in the society. Religion affects how people relate with each other and themselves, thereby having a huge impact on the views, opinions and beliefs of individuals with regard to other activities that they are engaged in within their societies. These opinions, worldviews and beliefs are then transferred in business where people exchange goods and services using recognized media of exchange. Religious values such as love, respect, trust hard work and other doctrines such as salvation, sin and predestination also shape how people view ownership, use and disposal of property (Johnstone, 2007). Religion encourages people to be diligent and take care of the surroundings in a way that pleases the Supreme Being, through hard work. Max Weber, realizing the influence of religion on individuals sought to analyze how such influence affected how individuals perceived the economy and business in general. In his theory, Max Weber attempts to elucidate the emergence of Europe and its uniqueness as a dominant economic force globally. Protestantism forms the core of his theory on the origins of capitalism as a major economic model. Capitalism emerged in the 17th century; concurrently with the Protestant reformation, that was taking place in Europe (Johnstone, 2007). During this time, religion was very important to most people and had a lot of influence in their actions and ways of thinking. According to Weber, capitalism began from religion and not from any technological developments that had started springing in the society at the time. Calvinist religions in Germany in particular were very fundamental in shaping the economic system in Germany and across Europe. Weber believed that the work ethic of

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Freedom of press Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Freedom of press - Assignment Example However, internet journalism suffers from a lack of structure that often results in ethical breaches and creation of content that is not informative or reliable. While the potential for internet as a tool for mass information is great; its biggest advantage is also its greatest weakness. With so many players in the information sector and a emphasis on being the first one to break a news; there is no check on the quality of the material is produced and distributed, no benchmarks in place and no enforcement of journalistic standards. â€Å"It is clear that digital journalism can allow for greater commitment to editorial standards. From better linking to primary sources of information, to greater commitment to transparency, there has never been an age more able to incorporate open, high-quality journalism† (Riordan). The problem is that online with so much free content available, websites are in a desperate race to get the most viewers and increase ad revenues. There is a significant occurrence of â€Å"Click-bait† in internet media outlets, where readers are enticed by sensational, often exaggerated headlines into going to a website link for a news article which may be unrelated to the exact heading. The practice is done to increase the number of users for a certain website and it compromises the integrity of the news. The worse scenarios are in which the news itself is falsified to create reader interest, one innocent example of this phenomena are related to the launch of the iphone 6 which was soon accompanied by news stories about the phone bending under slight pressure or people falling to pranks about charging the phone. These news stories were debunked within a few days but created a significant interest among fans and critics of the phone alike. More seriously, in the Gaza-Isreal conflict a lot of the news that was passed around on social media was

Friday, August 9, 2019

Importance of Learning Styles in Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Importance of Learning Styles in Nursing - Essay Example Due to different background, nurses offer a continuum of experiences and attributes during training such as varied learning styles. Therefore, training courses should focus on meeting the particular learning needs of individuals (Young & Paterson, 2007). Every individual shows preference for a particular learning style and this in turn accelerates an individual’s ability to learn. It has been stated that the primary goal of training courses is to upgrade an individual’s functioning; however, little effort or attention goes into appraising training methods. Research about successful training indicates that problem-focuses, pragmatic learning schemes based on skilful clinical monitoring and mentorship should be established. It was also revealed that nurses prefer on the job training; these results were similar to those of another research. It has been demonstrated that passive learning is futile and does not lead to improvement as opposed to active learning. Such research es have shown the need to remodel training schemes to embrace a work-oriented and learner-focused method. A logical approach and reasoning is encouraged by imparting education in practical clinical situation. This clinical setting assists in incorporating theoretical knowledge in actual practice for provision of better care of patients. The potential to learn and further application of this learning into practice plays an integral role in providing quality clinical service. Proficient and highly skilled staff guarantees the well-being of patients. In addition, such competent workforce will have to ability to identify and react aptly to clinical requirements. Incorporation of knowledge, learning styles, conceptions is the cornerstone for establishing an effective learning atmosphere. Thereby, an eclectic model is suggested that would integrate the complexities of individual learning into the association’s practices. Honey and Mumford’s Learning Style Questionnaire The à ¢â‚¬Ëœlearning style inventory model’ presented by Kolb inspired numerous theorists. His model served as the foundation stone for Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles Questionnaire. The distinguishing element between the two models is that the latter investigates general behavioural predisposition whereas Kolb’s model revolves around straightforward queries. Honey and Mumford advocated that majority of individuals have never put thought into how they acquire knowledge (Honey & Mumford, 2006). Essentially, the two models are similar but with minor differences, for instance the terms of Kolb’s model have been substituted: divergers with reflector, assimilators with theorist, convergers with pragmatist and accommodators with activist (Sims & Sims, 1995). 1. Reflector--- finds lecturers beneficial if they are based on expert expositions and analysis. He is fond of learning through watching, thinking and reviewing over events. He utilizes journals and brainstor ms. 2. Theorist— prefers lectures, case studies, books, structure, standards, and examples. He adopts a step-by-step approach to deal with problems and is not in favour of expert talk. 3. Pragmatist— fond of feedback, teaching and establishes evident ties between ongoing task and a difficulty. He applies novel knowledge to practice; and is inclined towards laboratories, actual work and examination. 4. Activist—

Given in attatchment Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Given in attatchment - Case Study Example Hence the presence of wireless providers will become more evident. In addition, the demand for wireless and mobile services appears to reach all-time highs. In United Kingdom, Vodafone PLC is one of the most prominent mobile firms. The market value of Vodafone is over 84.7 billion (Vodafone PLC, 2007). By far, this is the biggest in the world among mobile telecommunication operators. As proof to its dominance, Vodafone is partnered with firms in 39 countries worldwide. The firm has been a picture of success in the mobile industry. There were several companies which have tried but failed to penetrate a diverse market. Vodafone's success is often attributed to its strategies and the commitment to make a difference in the industry. Further, Vodafone has dedicated all of its resources to ensure that its customers are provided with top-notch service and solutions. Vodafone understands the need to change because of competition. Changes in consumer preference also affect Vodafone's current direction. To ensure success, the firm amassed high quality resources from the technology used to the personnel delivering the services. Vodafone also assess its current strategies and reviews the performance of these techniques. The company follows a meticulous process to arrive at the best possible decisions for given circumstances. Vodafone PLC caters to approximately 200 million clients. ... In addition, the firm has to settle impairment charges and losses from discontinued operations. But Vodafone's operating revenues was positive in 2006. In fact, the firm has amassed sales of 29 billion during the said year. Of these revenues, 9.4 billion was recorded as operating profit before the mentioned costs and losses. In UK, Vodafone competes against O2, T-Mobile, Virgin Media, 3, and Orange. At present the firm controls 21% of the actual market share. It ranks second in terms of controlled market in UK. Vodafone is known as a partner to several other wireless companies operating across the world. It is affiliated with providers that are market leaders. Vodafone continues to transact with other mobile operators to further expand its presence (Sheth, 2006). III. SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is defined as the scrutiny of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organisation (QuickMBA, 2007). This serves as an assessment of the firm's current market position. The primary strength of the company centres on innovation. The products developed by Vodafone identify the company. Another important strength of Vodafone PLC is linked to its reputation. The firm's links with other mobile providers in the world is a major strength. Instead of establishing a mobile network, Vodafone uses already established wireless firms in various markets. This save the company costs and allows Vodafone to make minimal investments with high returns. The brands developed by the firm are known to be of high quality. But Vodafone PLC has some obvious weaknesses. These include the weak performance of its partners. At times, Vodafone is dependent in the manner in which its partner