Friday, May 31, 2019
Software Piracy and Copyright Laws United States versus Vietnam I. IntroductionSoftware piracy is the unauthorized duplication, distribution or use of calculating machine bundle. Five main types of software piracy exist publisher patent and right of first publication infringement, industrial piracy, corporate piracy, reseller piracy, and home piracy. Software piracy is a large global issue, which has become a more pressing issue due to a number of reasons software is now easier to distribute on a global scale due to global access to the internet culturally, people have not been taught that copying software is like stealing a physiologic component does not need to be manufactured and finally individuals state that they cannot afford the high cost of software and state that they would not use the pirated software if they had to pay for it.1 Software piracy is being dealt with on a global level by actioning global copyright equitys. However, to date, no completely successfu l dash has been implemented to deal with copyright issues. I believe that software piracy is unethical, but copyright natural laws need a fine balance between the rights of the copyright holders and the fair use rights of the individual. The Berne convention implements copyright laws that many nations of the world have signed. The US has taken extreme measures to protect copyright with the Digital millenary Copyright Act (DMCA). The DMCA not only protects copyright owners, but it has been used to infringe on fair use and has promoted anti-competitive actions. Vietnam is on the other extreme. It has finally started to implement and enforce copyright laws, but due to cultural, economic, and legal views, it still has one of the highest software piracy rates in the world... ...ikipedia.org/wiki/Berne_Convention_for_the_Protection_of_Literary_and_Artistic_Works. Coping With the Berne Convention, 1989, Sheldon & Mak, May 27 2004, <http//www.usip.com/articles/bernec.htm. Shelley W arwick, Is Copyright Ethical? An Examination of the Theories, Laws and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States, June 4-5 1999, Intellectual Property and Technology Forum, May 27 2004, <http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/law/st_org/iptf/commentary/content/1999060505.html. Moral Rights, March 22 2004, Wikipedia, May 27 2004, <http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_rights. Michael C. McFarland, Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good, June 4-5 1999, Intellectual Property and Technology Forum, May 27 2004, <http//www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/law/st_org/iptf/commentary/content/1999060503.html.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
GIS A Step AboveUrban growth in the suburbs and maintaining what is already built is one problem facing the United States today. One hindrance in regional planning is the visualization of the area in question. Finding the problem areas, addressing all the issues involved, and discovering the best way to implement changes can create challenges for those in charge. A technology that is growing to accommodate the conf dod areas of study which helps address these issues is Geographical study Systems (GIS). Geographical Information Systems is the prime tool for spatial research. GIS at workGeographic Information Systems (GIS) are used in a wide variety of businesses across the United States. The program can compile various amounts and types of data into the systems database. The computer can then use the information to aid in spatially analyzing a specific research topic. Information stored in the GIS database is structured to order the information in separate applications. In a study of an urban street, information about the poverty statistics over the break decade would be saved separate from the literacy percentages. This input data could serve to catalog all the information a homeless shelter would record for the variant neighborhoods around it. The computer software of the GIS system is what is used to analyze that data. GIS provides an accessible, realistic model of what exists in the real world, (Martn 2) which allows different types of questions to be addressed. Spacial government agency related to the space around us, in which we live and function. (Clarke 2) The foundation for the use of GIS is to incorporate the many details of life in one location to get out the unit as a whole. ... ...ilities of GIS makes the program software realiable, accurate, and updatable. 6) Martn, David. Geographic Information Systems socioeconomic applications. Ed. 2. Routledge London, 1996. - This book defines GIS by its uses, history, and the princ iples behind the technology. Its purpose is to explain to newcomers how to use the software. It details recent advances in GIS. 7) Vine, Marilyn F., Darrah Degnan, and Carol Hanchette. Geographic information systems their use in environmental epidemiologic research. Journal of Environmental Health v. 61 no3 (Oct. 98) p. 7-16. - This article shows how GIS allows for researchers to show the relationship between human exposure and inset of the disease. The data from previous technology analysis used with the recent data can be used to show the spatial relationsihp of these elements.
Parkinson DiseaseThere exists a group of people who live the final years of their lives in glass boxes. They are perfectly equal of seeing outside, but incapable of reaching out to the world around them. Their emotions can not be shown by means of facial expression, and as their condition continues, lecture also becomes difficult or even impossible. These people are men and women of all races and geographical areas, constituting one percentage of the worlds population everyplace 50 years old. Parkinson disease is their affliction. Although paralysis agitans has been around almost as long as recorded history, in that respect is yet to be found a cause or a cure. Medications tame the symptoms and prolong life, but are incapable of reversing the disease progression.. Diagnosis relies wholly upon clinical signs and symptoms, because almost all science laboratory and radiography tests are normal in the Parkinson patient. For this reason early diagnosis is very difficult. The fact that early signs of Parkinsonism can easily be overlook as normal aging, further complicates diagnosis. Therefore, primary care physicians of the middle-aged and elderly population must be passing sensitive to patients outward appearance and changes in movement ability. Most signs and symptoms of Parkinson disease correspond to one of three motor deficiencies bradykinesia, akinesia, tremor, and rigidity. The first two qualities are usually present before tremor, but practically attributed to aging by the patient and even the physician, and thus the disease is rarely diagnosed until tremor becomes evident much later. An sightly of 80% of the nigrostriatal neurons may have already degenerated by the time Parkinsonism is diagnosed, which complicates treatment (Fitzgerald, 130). Bra... ...ed. Bailliere Tindall. London 1985. Kandel, E. R., J. H. Schwarz, and T. M. Jessel. Principles of Neural Science. 3rd ed. Elsevier. New York 1991. Korczyn, A. D. Autonomic nervous strategy Dist urbances in Parkinsons Disease. Advances in Neurology. Vol. 53, 1990, Pp., 463-468. Langston, J. W. original Theories on the Cause of Parkinsons Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 1989, suppl. ,pp. 13-i7. Lees, AJ. The On-Off Phenomenon. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 1989, suppl. ,pp. 29-37. Lieberman, A., Emerging Perspectives in Parkinsons Disease. Neurology. April 1992. suppl 4.. Pp. 5-7. Rowland, L. P., ed. Merritts Textbook of Neurology. seventh ed. Lea and Febiger. Philadelphia 1984. Walton, Sir John. Brains Diseases of the Nervous System. 9th ed. Oxford University Press. Oxford 1985. The Etiology and Treatment of Parkinson Disease Essay -- Health Aging Parkinson DiseaseThere exists a group of people who live the final years of their lives in glass boxes. They are perfectly capable of seeing outside, but incapable of reaching out to the world around them. Their emotions can not be shown through facial expressio n, and as their condition continues, speech also becomes difficult or even impossible. These people are men and women of all races and geographical areas, constituting one percent of the worlds population over 50 years old. Parkinson disease is their affliction. Although Parkinsonism has been around almost as long as recorded history, there is yet to be found a cause or a cure. Medications tame the symptoms and prolong life, but are incapable of reversing the disease progression.. Diagnosis relies exclusively upon clinical signs and symptoms, because almost all laboratory and radiography tests are normal in the Parkinson patient. For this reason early diagnosis is very difficult. The fact that early signs of Parkinsonism can easily be overlooked as normal aging, further complicates diagnosis. Therefore, primary care physicians of the middle-aged and elderly population must be extremely sensitive to patients outward appearance and changes in movement ability. Most signs and symptoms of Parkinson disease correspond to one of three motor deficiencies bradykinesia, akinesia, tremor, and rigidity. The first two qualities are usually present before tremor, but often attributed to aging by the patient and even the physician, and thus the disease is rarely diagnosed until tremor becomes evident much later. An average of 80% of the nigrostriatal neurons may have already degenerated by the time Parkinsonism is diagnosed, which complicates treatment (Fitzgerald, 130). Bra... ...ed. Bailliere Tindall. London 1985. Kandel, E. R., J. H. Schwarz, and T. M. Jessel. Principles of Neural Science. 3rd ed. Elsevier. New York 1991. Korczyn, A. D. Autonomic Nervous System Disturbances in Parkinsons Disease. Advances in Neurology. Vol. 53, 1990, Pp., 463-468. Langston, J. W. Current Theories on the Cause of Parkinsons Disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 1989, suppl. ,pp. 13-i7. Lees, AJ. The On-Off Phenomenon. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychi atry. 1989, suppl. ,pp. 29-37. Lieberman, A., Emerging Perspectives in Parkinsons Disease. Neurology. April 1992. suppl 4.. Pp. 5-7. Rowland, L. P., ed. Merritts Textbook of Neurology. 7th ed. Lea and Febiger. Philadelphia 1984. Walton, Sir John. Brains Diseases of the Nervous System. 9th ed. Oxford University Press. Oxford 1985.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
We have based the very existence of our country on the belief that complete separation of church and state is best for the church and is best for the state. However, throughout history the roles between morality and American public brio remain interwoven and continue to shape our beliefs and values. In order to begin to understand the role of righteousness in American public life, one essential first recognize that religion is present in numerous aspects of ones life. Even though the United States Constitution provides for separation of religion and government, most aspects of government intromit religion as a basis for its operating procedures. The U.S. Senate and House of Representatives begin each session with prayer. Another example of the presence of religion occurs at the carbon monoxide State Capital, as well as in other state capitals. Some members of both houses think that praying within government agencies is wrong. There are many Senators and Representatives who w ait outside for the prayer to be over before entering the room. Some members have even tried to prevent priests, ministers and rabbis from coming into the House to face the prayer (Associated Press). In some regions it is difficult for the government to know when to celebrate religion during the holidays since many holiday scenes revolve around a religious message. In the past, some government officials have been asked not to display holiday scenes on public property, but have been encouraged to place non-religious signs in the area instead. religious critics believe having a religious message at a government place could be a violation to the First Amendment (Leaming). Another example of how religion is interwoven with public life occurred when a group of Fellow... ...ers In The Hands Of An Angry God. Austin, Texas Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1989. Leaming, Jeremy. How and When Government can Celebrate Religion. Freedom Forum online, Available http//www.freedomforum.org /religion/1998/12/14nativityfeature.asp, January 28, 2001. Secretarys Statement on Religious Expression. Department of Educationonline, Available http//www.ed.gov/Speeches/08-1995/religion.html, January 29, 2001. Statement of Principles. Statements of Principles online, Available http//www.fac.org/publicat/principles/princip.htm, January 30, 2001. The Associated Press. Legislators Prayers at State Capitol Inappropriate. The Daily Sentinel, January 23, 2001. The Golden Treasury of Poetry. Hemans, Felicia. Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. fresh York, New York Western Publishing Inc., 1959.
The ChosenThe Chosen, a fiction novel written in 1967 by Chaim Potok, is about dickens young Jewish boys and their friendship. It takes us along with them on their journey from adolescence to adulthood. They face some(prenominal) conflicts, and through those trials the author makes his readers think more deeply into lifes true meanings.The novel was square up in natural York during the Second World War. Since the main characters are Jews, this period of time is rattling significant. Not only were the Jews persecuted during WWII, just now New York was also sloshed to a forces base, which made it a prime tar thwart for bombing. Even the setting has an underlying sense of tension. One of the protagonists in The Chosen is Reuven Malter. Reuven is an orthodox Jewish boy. He is a very smart and diligent student. His father, David Malter raises Reuven alone in Brooklyn, New York as his mother has already passed away. Reuven has glasses, brown hair and eyes, and dresses in the usual orthodox manner. A plain boy, he has a bright mind and a very caring soul.The other protagonist in the novel is Danny Saunders. Danny is the give-and-take of a very devoted Hasidic Jewish tzaddik. However, Danny is not a very enthusiastic Hasid. He has earlocks, grows a beard, and wears the traditional Hasidic outfit, but he doesnt have the adore for it that he should. Danny is a genius. His religion forbids him to read literature from the outside world, so he struggles with his thirst for knowledge and the restraints that have been put on him by both(prenominal) his father and his religion. He lives with his father, mother, older sister, and younger brother in Brooklyn as well. The first antagonist is Danny. He and Reuven had many difficulties. They resolve their problems in the course of the book, but at the beginning they hate each other. Their religious views are also very opposite. at one time they overcome their differences, they become best friends. g rayback Saunders is the second antagonist. A Hasidic tzaddik, he led his people into freedom in America. Reb has strange ideas on raising Danny. He believes that silence forget teach Danny compassionateness and give him an understanding for pain. He does not talk to his son about anything but the Talmud. Loving and respecting each other immensely, Reb and Danny scarcely never get a chance to express their feelings with one another. Reb holds Danny back and do... ...alizes that he cant expect to keep such a genius in the cage. Reb finds out about Dannys plans for the future, and although they contradict the way he would have wanted Danny to continue with his life, he agrees to let Danny adjudicate for himself. Satisfied as a father, Reb says, I had to make certain his soul would be the soul of a tzaddik no matter what he did with his life. Once Reb has presumptuousness his son freedom, Danny remains faithful to his religion and, although he is not as devout, goes out int o the world.Throughout this novel, there is an underlying force of prejudice. The two different Jewish sects are prejudiced against one another. Alongside, WWII also has a lot of prejudices locked up in it. The Zionist and anti-Zionist movements were prejudiced toward each other and many of these examples are plunge in the novel.Reuven Malter narrated The Chosen. This gives it a youthful perspective. It is very descriptive. Potok used many detailed vocabulary words to communicate his point. A lot of nonliteral language helps generate analogies and insights, as well. The Chosen is a very insightful novel about the Jewish culture and the trials that come with growing up. The Chosen testify -- Essays PapersThe ChosenThe Chosen, a fiction novel written in 1967 by Chaim Potok, is about two young Jewish boys and their friendship. It takes us along with them on their journey from adolescence to adulthood. They face many conflicts, and through those trials the a uthor makes his readers think more deeply into lifes true meanings.The novel was set in New York during the Second World War. Since the main characters are Jews, this period of time is very significant. Not only were the Jews persecuted during WWII, but New York was also close to a military base, which made it a prime target for bombing. Even the setting has an underlying sense of tension. One of the protagonists in The Chosen is Reuven Malter. Reuven is an orthodox Jewish boy. He is a very smart and diligent student. His father, David Malter raises Reuven alone in Brooklyn, New York as his mother has already passed away. Reuven has glasses, brown hair and eyes, and dresses in the typical orthodox manner. A plain boy, he has a bright mind and a very caring soul.The other protagonist in the novel is Danny Saunders. Danny is the son of a very devoted Hasidic Jewish tzaddik. However, Danny is not a very enthusiastic Hasid. He has earlocks, grows a beard, and wears the traditi onal Hasidic outfit, but he doesnt have the reverence for it that he should. Danny is a genius. His religion forbids him to read literature from the outside world, so he struggles with his thirst for knowledge and the restraints that have been put on him by both his father and his religion. He lives with his father, mother, older sister, and younger brother in Brooklyn as well. The first antagonist is Danny. He and Reuven had many difficulties. They resolve their problems in the course of the book, but at the beginning they hate each other. Their religious views are also very opposite. Once they overcome their differences, they become best friends.Reb Saunders is the second antagonist. A Hasidic tzaddik, he led his people into freedom in America. Reb has strange ideas on raising Danny. He believes that silence will teach Danny compassion and give him an understanding for pain. He does not talk to his son about anything but the Talmud. Loving and respecting each other imme nsely, Reb and Danny just never get a chance to express their feelings with one another. Reb holds Danny back and do... ...alizes that he cant expect to keep such a genius in the cage. Reb finds out about Dannys plans for the future, and although they contradict the way he would have wanted Danny to continue with his life, he agrees to let Danny decide for himself. Satisfied as a father, Reb says, I had to make certain his soul would be the soul of a tzaddik no matter what he did with his life. Once Reb has given his son freedom, Danny remains faithful to his religion and, although he is not as devout, goes out into the world.Throughout this novel, there is an underlying force of prejudice. The two different Jewish sects are prejudiced against one another. Alongside, WWII also has a lot of prejudices locked up in it. The Zionist and anti-Zionist movements were prejudiced toward each other and many of these examples are found in the novel.Reuven Malter narrated The Chosen. T his gives it a youthful perspective. It is very descriptive. Potok used many detailed vocabulary words to communicate his point. A lot of figurative language helps develop analogies and insights, as well. The Chosen is a very insightful novel about the Jewish culture and the trials that come with growing up.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Post-Colonial Themes in David Maloufs Remembering BabylonIt is interesting to note that, although in the context of this MA course we are studying Maloufs novel in hurt of a post-compound answer, the author himself has expressed the opinion that it is not, strictly speaking, a post-compound text. Most would agree with Malouf in that it is certainly not an example of resistance or response from a member of a colonised community in the same vein as, for example, Chinua Achebe or some Native Canadian authors. Rather, it can be seen as an examination of the compound project by a descendant of the original colonisers.Nevertheless, there are several themes running through the novel which constitute elements of post-colonial discourse, and this summon intends to briefly examine some of them.There is a pervasive sense of colonial guilt throughout Remembering Babylon, an awareness of the suspect morality of the colonial process. Like Great Expectations, Babylon recognises Australia as a po tential utopia for the industrious European immigrant - unlike Dickens, however, Malouf asserts that the success of the project rests not on merely exploiting the resources available (while ignoring or displacing the indigenous people), but on reaching a kind of harmony and exchange with the landscape and with the colonised. This hybrid culture represents, for Malouf, the ideal ultimate outcome of the colonial process.The potential for this utopia is personalised in the crude shape of Gemmy Fairley, an English castaway who lives among aborigines for 16 years before crossing back into European civilisation, where his identity is at present called into question. Gemmy is an in-between creature(p.28), occupying an uncertain cultural spa... ...piphany, a realisation of harmony with nature which is very aboriginal in character.Viewed from a post-colonial perspective, Remembering Babylon is a pessimistic assessment of the colonial project, a lament for the missed opportunities which a m eeting of disparate cultures could provide for humanity. Yes, there is a hopeful hint that the utopia is still somehow attainable, in the self-knowledge gained by Jock, Janet, Lachlan and Frazer. However Malouf, writing as he is in the last decade of the twentieth century, is aware that the colonial project has failed on these terms, and this realisation must specify any reading of the novel.NOTE Much of the material used on this varlet is taken from a conversation with David Malouf in Dublin, 19 April 1997.NOTE The page numbers referred to on this page are taken from the 1994 Vintage edition of Remembering Babylon.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
Work 1 Mona Lisa Leonardo de Vinci, i503-i507 Oil on poplar, (77 x 55cm, 30 x 21in) Muste de Louve, Paris Work 2 Flowers of Edo Young Womans narrative Chanting to the Shamison Kitagowa Utamoro, Mid 17903 Color wood distract print (15 1/8 x 10/38. 5 x 25. 5 cm) Spencer Museums Art The University of Kansas I am not a professional device critic, I just like beautiful paintings. It is very fascinating to me the talent that some are born with. Dilect changes with time but a painting or message or imaginary stays the same. I chose two very important paintings both are portraits of woman.They were created during different time periods. Comparing the two engage one (Mona Lisa) is very detailed, while work two (Flowers of Edo Young womans narrative chanting to the shamisen) is more sketched. I am left field wondering if work two was a real person or drawing that was later painted. Mona Lisa or La Giocanda (Lajaconde) is the 16th century, oil paintings on frozen wood by Leonardo Da Vinci, and is one of the worlds most famous paintings. Few works of art have been subjected to as untold scrutiny, study, mythologizing and parody.It is owned by the French government and hangs in the Musee da Louvre in Paris. The painting, a half-length portrait, depicts a woman whose gaze meets the viewers with an spirit often described as enigmatic. The title Mona Lisa stems from the Giorgio Vasari biography of Leonard De Vinci published 31 yrs after Leonards death. In it he identified the sitter as Lisa Gherardini, the wife of a wealthy businessman Mona was a common name from the title Madonna, meaning my lady, the English version of Madam.The alternative title is the Italian version which substance light-hearted was derived because of her smile. The Flowers of Edo was a series of creations by artist kawakawa Utamoro, who was a Japanese print maker and painter, and he is considered one of the greatest artists of wood block prints. He is especially known for his masterfully compose d studies of women. His sensuous female beauties are generally considered the finest and most evocative. He also produced nature studies particularly illustrated books of insects.Kitagawa work reached europium in the middle of the 19th century, where his works were very popular enjoying particular fame in France. He influenced the European impressionist, particularly with his use of partial views, with an emphasis or light and shade. Sources The Mona Lisa Exposed Http//www. hepgura. com/mona Lisa, an ad supported tufts University student website dedicated to the Mona Lisa. Shrug asana, Timothy Clark, The passionate art of Kitagowa Utamaro British Museum Press, London, 1995
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Western Political Philosophy in the opinion of this essay is a concerted attempt to project and obligate on a hapless people a foundation for immediate, continued domination and exploitation, we, on that pointfore as a united Caribbean people, give the bouncenot solve our problems with the same intellection that created them. This paper identifies and discusses the central themes ( opinion) of Gordon Lewis Main Currents in Caribbean Thought, Paget Henrys Calibans Reason, Rex Nettlefords The interlocking for Space and Charles W. mill around Blackness Visible. This identification and discussion (generally) is achieved by tracing the evolution of Caribbean Political popular opinion through an examination of race/class, explanations of under ontogeny, perspectives on dependency and the anti colonial movement inter alia. The paper goes on to explain (specifically) the publicner in which these plant life assist in taste the characteristic features, concerns and content of Caribbea n policy-making melodic theme.The final section briefly examines where the Caribbean is at currently by isolating the present even out of circumstances engaging the islands. In doing so the paper hopes to make a contribution to the understanding and progress of Caribbean political melodic theme. INTRODUCTION The Caribbean has been described as an body politic of European colonisation and exploitation through slavery and the plantation system harmonize to Dennis Benn (1987), it has also been described in terms of the cross manner of these conjoined variables, the product of a racial mixture of African, European and Asian referred to as Creole.Nigel Bolland (2004) describes Creole as locally born persons of non- ingrained origin, which, in the Americas, generally means people of any African or European ancestry. This essay goes further and checks this groups contribution to this space, diverse in ethnic, ethnic and spectral inputs, in terms of the new demands to be make on t he state from the product of the aforementioned conjoining. Contribution is achieved by path of a intelligibly articulated political doctrine moderating the competing interest.It is this articulation that is the eyeshot of this essay. To this end an effort bequeath be made to identify and critically discuss the central themes of Gordon Lewis Main Currents in Caribbean Thought, Paget Henrys Calibans Reason, Rex Nettlefords The Battle for Space and Charles W. Mills Blackness Visible. To achieve the necessary c all overage of the issues the essay will proceed as follows an analysis of the characteristic features, concerns and content of Caribbean political thought.Comparisons will be made to typically distinctive aspects of African and European political philosophy (characteristic features), democracy, representation, institutional musical arrangement and authority (concerns), equality, social justice, wel farthermoste (content). It is by this comparison to the assumed standard th at a location of Caribbean political thought could be made and understanding of its populace assessed. Finally the understanding sought will be put to mathematical function in locating the Caribbean in this global milieu.It is hoped that a contribution however small will contribute to the ongoing development of Caribbean Political Thought. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES The assumption that philosophy is held as a European monopoly is grounded in an intellectual tradition whose history consists of the evolution of mens thoughts nigh political problems over time according to Sabine and Thorson (1973). Thankfully, there is balance to the discussion accorded by nuanced analysis describing the aforementioned assertion as a pretended assumption given that these phenomena as known to the Greek were but arte features of thought George Belle (1996).The suspense must, therefore, be asked to what extent the character of Caribbean political philosophy shown a direct of independence from western political philosophy and by extention an enlightened path that reflects its African/European/Asian origin and coalescence of its peoples (Creole). This coalescence is described, to a round extent, by C W Mills (1998) as the coexistence of parallel but incompatible institutional arrangements within a recognised political state speaks clearly to the many complex issues engaging the multitude of interest acting within this Caribbean.Significantly and more importantly, is the anti-colonial deal that is fought at the level of the psyche through cultural and spiritual expressions Paget Henry (1997). This essay will examine some(prenominal) examples and place them into context. Henry argues that religion has undergone systematic alienation within the Caribbean theatre by way of a lowering of its register or importance to thought. His observations show an embrace of Eurocentric Christianity used by the former colonials as a tool of assert and subordination culminating in a radical disen franchising of traditional African religions pertaining to inherited Afro-Caribbean Christianity (voodoo and shango). He explained A deployment of binaries (negative assertions) led to European/Christian denials of the existence of an African religious philosophy, significantly and more importantly, is the anti-colonial struggle that is fought at the level of the psyche through cultural and spiritual expressions. What is noted by Henry is the idea that stagnation has been allowed to imply root in the philosophy allowing gaps for re-colonisation. These gaps are identified by Mills (1998) as he draws on the efforts of David T Wellman (1993) who made clear It has been argued that the historic quotation of white racism lies in a combination of religious intolerance and cultural predispositions to see non-whites as alien. The medieval battles against Islam are thence the precursors of the racism that was to go along European expansionism into the world.African religions were seen as devil worship, black acculturation and customs viewed as mumbo jumbo, paradigmatically bizarre. Henry and Mills collectively recognised the Eurocentric imposition that has get on to be known as Christianity and its use as a tool to negatively impact race relations dividing and colonising a people. The expectation would be a Caribbean response in defense and ownership of that cosmology which was African. Instead, according to Belle (1996), an intellectual stasis was the result complementing the concept of negative binaries.Belle went on to intimate Haitian political actors culturally trivialised and ridiculed voodum. The role of voodum, a spiritual expression, in the Haitian experience was central for them in their supernatural and cultural expressions within an anti colonial context. Recall Mills (1998) incompatible institutional arrangement alluded to earlier consider that Henry was able to capture the Haitian dynamic beautifully, this also in the context that Haiti holds the d istinction of be the rootage independent black state of the new world.He expressed it as A series of extended debates between the major competing racial groups of the Euro-Caribbean, Amerindians, Indo-Caribbean and Afro-Caribbean over projects of colonial domination. The philosophical productions of the Euro-Caribbean were aimed at effecting European political and social hegemony (recall Belle (1996)). While, in contrast, the philosophical undertakings of the Indo-Caribbean and Afro-Caribbean were aimed at destroying European hegemony by destroying the legitimacy of their colonial projects. It is clear from these attempts to define the character of Caribbean political philosophy emphasis has been placed on its utility as an anti colonial tool for overcoming and overturning projects of European hegemony according to Henry (1995). At the heart of these projects are attempts to minimise the effort to develop an alternative to Christianity, reconnection to an African cosmology that bo re witness to the imposition of European dogma and through the article of faith of Islam.This essay accepts that any attempt to build out a project must at the same time seduce a level of self-importance assessment attempted by Mills and Henry in this instance. What are of concern to this essay are efforts from within to compromise the character of the project. It is left to be determined if concerns (to be discussed) will suffer the same fate. CONCERNS The classic argument in favour of western political thought is found in social-contract theories, first proposed by seventeenth-century philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.Social-contract theory, in fact, constitutes the basis for concerns in modern political thought according to Andrew Heywood (2004). The argument is referenced to society without government, a alleged(prenominal) state of nature. Hobbes poignantly describes this state of nature as being solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short reinforcing that without govern ment to restrain selfish impulses, order and stability would be impossible. To what extent has this argument been a part of the contribution concerning Caribbean political philosophers or has there been a redefining of Hobbes position?Paget Henry (2000) identifies a situation of what came natural to the African and the colonial intrusion of a self appointed hegemonic force. In an attempt to locate the discussion within the confines of the state Henry draws on Kwameh Nkrumah (1965) to rise a modern ideology unlike the European articulation of Hobbes state of nature. The African assessment is one of diametric opposition, Nkrumah explains The traditional face of Africa includes an attitude toward man which can solitary(prenominal) be described, in its social manifestation, as being socialist.This arises from the fact that man is regarded in Africa as primarily a spiritual being, a being endowed originally with certain inward dignity, integrity and value. This rationality of the Afri can locates him apart from his European counterpart. Henry showed the widespread existence of one-party states in Africa was not due to one particular outlook he opined it pointed to the persistence of a traditional political culture that included a grammar of chiefly or kingly political behaviour.The argument is not without reason given the application by Plato to the philosopher kings and much later the Divine Right of Kings show a use of African political structure in an attempt to order a European society. The Caribbean, however, has shown no such inclination having been to a large extent detain in and shaped by social rivalries, ethnic animosities, weak personal/social identity and political fragmentation caused by the twin epiphenomena of slavery and colonialism according to Gordon Lewis (1983).This is not by accident Lewis argued that the inability of Caribbean people to come to grips with this reality, that was not imagined but was real, left them open to continued exploita tion. He went on to explain kinda accurately that Slavery was also a powerful ideological deterrent, for it generated a scale of values in the top, dominant groups of the colonies, in which fear of the black batch stifled aspiration for national independence.At every turn in the story, these groups opted for selfish treason rather than for popular revolt. Lewis contribution launched the consequence of the native bourgeoisies economic dependence upon the colonial bourgeoisie. It has never been the aspiration of the former coloniser to give more for less on the contrary the intent was one of taking more for less. Observe how the power struggle ostensibly between colonised and coloniser gets displaced by power relations within the colonised body politic itself.Remember the argument is one of government structure based on self interest (Hobbes and Locke) against one based on consensus (Paget Henry). patently self-serving political and economic ambitions knows no boundary and does not seek to serve the interests of the newly independent proletariat. Frantz Fanon (1963) suggests the ways in which intellectual leaders very much betray the national working-class Before independence, the leader generally embodies the aspirations of the people for independence, political liberty, and national dignity.But as soon as independence is declared, far from embodying in concrete form the needs of the people in what touches bread, land, and the restoration of the country to the sacred hands of the people, the leader will reveal his inner decide to become the general president of that company of profiteers impatient for their returns which constitutes the national bourgeoisie. Fanons assessment is encapsulated by a more specific argument against the existence of a Caribbean Philosophy, it is the scholarship of the absence of an intellectual tradition, and the belief the Caribbean is a cultural desert.The widely held view of the Caribbean as a region of the three Ss sea , sand and sex. A notion upon which the tourism industry has been constructed by and to this day exploited by a select few (national bourgeoisie). The writers, to a large extent, bedevil highlighted the threats to democracy, representation, institutional arrangement and authority by way of concerns. A social contract theory promulgated by the former colonial has been answered by an African option incorporate on consensus. A timely observation of the constraints to growth based on petty rivalries is a reminder of the island state vulnerability to external influence.This essay suggests that treason of the political elite fairly represents the intellectual dilemma the Caribbean is now facing if Fanon (1963) is accepted. This essay argues that if these concerns were addressed maybe the stability of the natural African heritage would have offered up a leader and a type of governance sensitive to the masses and diversification needed.This essay understands the contribution of Henry an d Lewis in attempting to show there was an intellectual tradition drawing heed to democracy, institutional arrangement and authority to address the myriad of concerns. CONTENT Issues that, historically and today, have most concerned political philosophers begin with a set of questions about equality, justice and welfare. These could be thought of as an enquiry into the best form of state according to David Miller (1998). It is a fact that for most of our history human beings have not been governed by states hence the free roaming tribes of Africa, Taino and Kalilingo of the Caribbean and not to be left out the marauding barbarians of Europe.From the inception this essay has identified a specific group as central to the continued existence of the Caribbean. Rex Nettleford (1993) and Charles Mills (2007) confirm that centrality by, in the first instance, identifying the group as one of three broad elements shaping the society in the second instance, through a specific schema that em bodies a racial mandate both starting at diverging points but eventually reaching a mutually understood location.Nettleford has been innovative using the concept of space to draw attention to social injustice he describes maronnage or the strike out into safe psychic sanctums calling on inner reserves beyond the reach of external violators. This retreat came about with the use of language to communicate, plan and execute rebellion in a idiom foreign to the invaders bringing some equality to a struggle that was always almost dictated by the colonial.He explained .. Creole, in the proper sense of native-born, native-bred and not in the sense of an aberration of a dialect to the average of a standard tongue. The very code switching , so normal to Caribbean people in the liberal use of Creole for appropriate circumstances change to the lingua franca as the occasion demands (sometimes in one sentence), is a sign of the capacity to master the flow between inner and outer space on one level. The code switching to which he refers is an attempt to push back an institution not sympathetic to the Creole. To organise and communicate meant the mastery of a tongue foreign to the colonial because the institutions to which he had a monopoly were unequal, lacked social justice and had no welfare. This was identified by an economic relationship that marginalised tray merchants placing the Caribbean person on the periphery of existence according to Nettleford (1993).The exclusion from the vicinity of formal commercial enterprises driving the trader underground to the informal economy away from the formal economy clearly establishes a prima facie case for the judicial, executive and legislative institutions to answer with regard to the adopted precepts of western political thought. Mills wasted no time highlighting the fact that race has been essentially trim to a minimal debate, glossed over, and otherwise left out of the majority of the multiculturalism literature Mills ( 1998).His evaluation was logical and nuanced, he argued that shadow the evolution of the concepts of race and ethnicity race began as a biological and therefore immutable aspect of the human condition, while ethnicity was and is seen as a consequence of culture. racial discrimination and ethnocentrism were differentiated by their essential characterisations Race is a consequence of biology and therefore racism presumes a biological hierarchy ethnicity is a consequence of culture and therefore ethnocentrism requires a surrender of cultural distinction and assimilation. Given the consensus within the scientific community that biological race and frankincense biological hierarchy do not exist, what pertains in the Caribbean, therefore, in the form of Creole ethnicity and ethnocentrism are seen as relatively more logical and reasoned according to Mills (2007). There is arrest of this assessment by Lewis (1983). He articulated a position that the Caribbeans single greatest contributio n to political thought is its open exploration of the question concerning race.This exploration, as Lewis puts it, possibly offers a counter to a Eurocentric fetish with its misplaced presumption of superiority on the subject, a sober Caribbean response. The content of Caribbean thought being characterised as overly concerned with the use of race converges to the concept of Creole recall the alignment sought earlier by Nettleford (1993) and Mills (2007) it is no wonder, therefore, that ethnicity as articulated by Mills (2007) is seen as a more politically palatable category to discuss and philosophically legitimate engaging the polity at all levels.As a people are we therefore satisfied with the aforementioned argument in its attempt to reconcile what is a contentiously debated stem? This essay suggest that the attempt at convergence is likely due to the challenge of the (particularism) of Caribbean Political thought essentially a question of authenticity which can be defined as of undisputed origin, genuine, reliable and trustworthy. It is a question of who constitutes the Caribbean person, in this case the African or Asian or European or is it the Creole or maybe none of the previously mentioned.Since it is suggested by some that the attempt at convergence is unlikely must the debate be reduced to one or the other in an attempt to secure an answer? This essay further suggests a complexity that cannot be determined by way of who has the right to speak on behalf of the Caribbean and a claim of superiority. To attempt this would in the opinion of this essay reduce the debate to that which western political thought is risky in its biological existence. This is where maturity and understanding is paramount in the construction of a worthwhile paradigm independent of western political dogma.UNDERSTANDING CARIBBEAN governmental PHILOSOPHY The term political philosophy often refers to a view, specific political belief or attitude about politics that does not ine vitably belong to the technical discipline of philosophy. In short, political philosophy is the activity, as with all philosophy, whereby the conceptual apparatus behind such concepts as aforementioned are analysed, in their history, intent, evolution and the like according to Jean Hampton (1997).Tim Hector questioned, Where is our philosophy? as if to imply that the aforementioned concepts are yet to be found or worst not understood and overlooked. His ask is reasonable given the time our people have occupied this space with the accompanying accoutrements of independence and must be answered against a background of accepted criteria as to what a political philosophy is Hampton (1997). Right or wrong the confluence, convergence, divergence, lack of application that has become synonymous with these islands gives what they have to say a genuine uniqueness.Since independence, for all the limitations, they have not found the need to go on crusades slaughtering millions in the name of Go d, use an intellectually contented ideology to foist on the rest of the world a self serving expansionist ideology under developing Africa and the Caribbean in the name of capitalism, cut up its own in two world wars and as this essay concludes present globalisation as the new destabilising force.It is the position of this essay that the writers have been able to establish a prima facie case toward a political philosophy there is history, intent and evolution however more needs to be done if only to say Caribbean political philosophy is not what western political philosophy is. As long as the peoples resist the urge to lean toward their own understanding Caribbean Political Philosophy has a chance to become a global solution to its Western Political nemesis.CONCLUSIONIt is clear that an understanding of Caribbean political philosophy is an understanding of the post colonial project and the need for the Caribbean to extricate itself from the political dogma that is Eurocentric in c onstruction and delivery. In summary this characterisation of Caribbean thought places a high value on overturning projects of European hegemony Nettleford (1995). So important is this aspect of the project that an epistemology, ontology perspective was developed to give structure and ground the thinking given the purported monopoly expressed by the European.Henry (2000) highlights the key thematic lines along which Caribbean political thought has thus far been expressed. This, however, has not been without controversy the claim that the Caribbeans single greatest contribution to global thought is its exploration of the question of race Lewis (1983) has triggered the characterisation as overly concerned with the utilisation of race as an analytical category. Mills (2007) answers the characterisation with a nuanced alternative articulating that biological race and thus biological hierarchy do not exist, what pertains in the Caribbean in a form of Creole ethnicity and ethnocentrism.If exclusively defined by the Western Political standards the Caribbean would be hard pressed to identify a political philosophy, the debate is thus confined to what is important to the people occupying the space. The fundamental difference is with application of what needs to be done given that the Caribbean is young relative to its European counterpart then there is more to be accomplished. This essay understands the confluence, convergence, divergence, dialectic that has become synonymous to these balkanised geographical dispersed islands.This essay accepts that understanding of a situation comes not with a presumption of right or wrong but openness to arguments, that, if placed on a balance of probabilities could become the reality of the reader. BIBLIOGRAPHY Belle, George. 1996 Against Colonialism Political Theory and Re-Colonisation in the Caribbean. Paper presented at the Conference on Caribbean Culture Mona Jamaica UWI. Benn, Dennis. 1987 Ideology and Political Development the Growth and Development of Political Ideas in the Caribbean 1774-1983.Jamaica ISER, Mona. Bolland, Nigel. 2004 The Birth of Caribbean civilization A century of ideas about culture and identity, nation and society Kingston Ian Randle Fanon, Frantz. 1963 The Wretched of the Earth. New York Grove Press. Hampton, Jean. 1997. Political Philosophies and Political Ideologies, Montreal Westview Press. Heywood, Andrew. 2004 Political Ideologies, 3rd Edition An Introduction, regular army Palgrave McMillan Henry, Paget. 2000. Calibans Reason Introducing Afro Caribbean Philosophy, capital of the United Kingdom Routledge, Lewis, Gordon.1983. Main Currents in Caribbean Thought The Historical Evolution of Caribbean Society in Its Ideological Aspects, 1492-1900, Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press. Miller, David. 1998. Political philosophy in E. Craig (Ed. ), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, London Routledge. Mills, Charles. 1998 Blackness Visible Essays on Philosophy and Race, Ithaca Co rnell University Press.Mills, Charles. 2007 Multiculturalism as/and/or Anti-Racism? in Multiculturalism and Political Theory Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press. Nkrumah, Kwameh. 1965 Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism London Thomas Nelson & Sons, Ltd. Nettleford, Rex. 1993 Inward Stretch, outwards Reach A voice from the Caribbean Basingstoke MacMillan. Sabine, George Holland, Thomas Landon Thorson. 1973. A history of political theory. Hinsdale, Ill Dryden Press. Wellman, David T. 1977 Portraits of White Racism, 2d ed, New York Cambridge University Press.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Contestable 39 Shreenaeconomics Is the airline market contestable? commentary Of contestability when there argon none or low barriers to entry for incumbent firms Where they Will be forced to keep prices competitive and profits low in the long term. Otherwise this Will encourage Other firms to enter into the market.There ar roughly 20 airline companies based in the 0K market It iS a comprise Of an oligopolistic market and price is not always the determinant of demand but non price factors such as Inflight services and atmosphere. Is contestable Not contestable small-scale cost airlines as there are cut barriers to entry and exit as you layabout lease airplanes and narrow the set up costs. There are also no sunk costs If leased airplanes.This means that capital wont be lost when exiting the market High barriers to entry In ground of sunk costs and Infrastructural costs. Providing services costs a lot ot money (le first class cabins) There Is competition between companies so vernal tirms can enter and make normal profits There are dominant tirms in the market, there will be brand loyalty which reduces contestability as new firms will have to compete on onprlce factors to gain loyal customers and to compete with other firms. an example being british airways and virgin BA has a sedate quiet in air craft experience and Virgin airlines offer a lively talk promoting atmosphere where even the airhostesses try and get conversations going) devil to the same level of technology. this means that the costs each firm take on from technological aspects such as inflight services and ways of booking are the same so it doesnt stop competition as there is no LISPS.The bigger firms can exploit economies of scale as they produce at lower average unit cost compared to new firms entering the market which do not have perfect information about cheap suppliers or start buy to get big discounts, the low cost airline market is more contestable than normal airlines use of the Internet to reduce distribution be Maximise the utilisation Of the aircraft assets Direct sell only Via the net Ticketless travel NO free airline food one kind of aircraft commonality maxmlses strength in the recruitment and training of staff Predatory pricing can occur In the short which can drive away new firms, they reduce heir profits below average costs and cover with saved revenues till the new firms cannot make any profit and they exit the market.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
Essay How did black churches function during the antebellum period? Frederick Douglas, perhaps, said it best when he mentioned that the AME Mother Bethel Church in Philadelphia, obviously being a black church, was the largest church in the Union, with up to 3,000 worshipers every Sunday. This fact, along with black churches being the most influential institution in the antislavery movement (even more so than black conventions and newspapers) gave the religious aspect of the movement a powerful advantage.With very few exceptions, most leading black abolitionists were ministers. A few black ministers, such as Amos N. Freeman of Brooklyn, New York, even served white antislavery congregations. Black Churches also provided forums for abolitionist speakers and meeting places for predominantly white antislavery organizations, which frequently could not meet in white churches. Black church buildings were community centers. They house schools and meeting places for other organizations. Antis lavery societies often met in churches, and the churches harbored fugitive slaves.All of this went hand in hand with the community leading black ministers provided. They began schools and various voluntary associations. They spoke against slavery, racial oppression, and what they considered weaknesses among African Americans. However, black ministers never spoke with one voice. Throughout the antebellum decades, many followed Jupiter Hammon in warning(a) their congregations that preparing ones soul for heaven was more important than gaining equal rights on earth.Most black Baptist, Presbyterian, Congregationalist, Episcopal, and Roman Catholic congregations remained affiliated with white denominations, although they were seldom represented in regional and national church councils. For example, the Episcopal Diocese of New York in 1819 excluded black ministers from its annual conventions, mentioning that African Americans argon socially degraded, and are not regarded as proper asso ciates for the class of persons who attend our convention. Not until 1853 was white abolitionist William Jay able to convince New York Episcopalians to admit representatives.Under the influence of a wave of religious revivalism, evangelicals carried Christian morality into politics during the 1830s. Religion, of course, had always been important in America. During the antebellum period, a new, emotional revivalism began. Known as the Second big(p) Awakening, it lasted through the 1830s. It led laymen to replace established clergy as leaders and seek to impose moral order on a turbulent society. In conclusion, clergy used their pulpits to attack slavery, racial discrimination, proslavery white churches, and the American Colonization Society (ACS).
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
There is no single cause of crime, it is rooted in a diversity of casual factors and takes a variety of forms, depending on the internet site in which it occurs. Nonetheless, some theories of human behavior help us understand why certain mint engage in acts that society defines as evil or deviant, while others do not. A theory is a kind of model.Theories posit relationships, often of a casual sort, between events and things under study. Theories once created must be tested to determine whether they are valid and modern criminology has become increasingly scientific. There are many different theories that suggest why people commit crimes. Each of which has there own scientific explanation.Early biological theories of crime tried to establish a connection between physical deformity, stultification and ugliness with crime. While borderline scientific disciplines such as physiognomy attempted to establish a link between facial features, personality and crime. explanation of biologi cal theories of crime favors biological traits as a dominant factor that will affect human behavior and actions.Biological theories of crime which in yesteryear years has fallen into disrepute are beginnings to experience something of a contemporary resurgence. Most early theories of the biological school of crime causation, which built on patrimonial or bodily characteristics and features, made certain fundamental assumptions. Basic determinants of human behavior, including criminal tenancies.The basic determinants of human behavior, including criminality, may be passed on from generation to generation. In other behavior is the result of biords, a penchant for crime may be inherited. Biological theories tended towards seeing crime as a form of illness, caused by pathological factors specific to certain classes of individuals. We assume people were born criminals Cesare Lombroso famous criminologist, rejected the classical school or rational choice model because he believe crimina lity was inherited.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
In this essay I will compare the Theory of Creationism and the Theory of Evolution. part there are many that deeply believe in each of these theories, they present unsheathed differences in thinking, and in individual beliefs. Let us draw by looking at Creationism. This particular surmise has non a single shred of evidence to support it, yet vast populations are automatic to die rather than denounce it. It has been referred to as The Truth.The basic belief of this theory is that The Lord God, or a Supreme Being created the public and everything in it. It is believed that we as humans were made in the image of God. God created man, and called him Adam. Adam was lonely and The Lord then took a mark fun from Adam while he slept, and with it he created woman. God called her Eve. The creation of the universe and everything in it took six days. On the seventh day, God rested. In stark contrast to the Creationist Theory, we permit what is called the Theory of Evolution.Charles Dar win is credited with first proposing this theory, which also includes something cognize as natural selection. First things first, let us examine evolution. Darwin believed that we as humans, as wells animals and even plants are constantly changing. His belief and that of many others is that with every generation slight modifications are inherent, thus producing better and better offspring. By this this he means better adapted to survive and flourish. If it could ever be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been create by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down. (Charles Darwin). To summarize, the basis of theory here is the guiding force or natural selection preserves near variations, therefore each generation exhibits new and much complex organisms. This applies to the tiniest bug or externalizedling, as well as all plants and animals including human beings. Science save is yet to prove either the ory. It must be said that the details of this process remain obscure and are not likely to be known in the near future. (The RNA World, p72-73). It must be understood that science is based on two assumptions known as saws. Axioms represent self-evident assumptions. Scientists would not be able to continue the occupy of science without the observable axiom. If this were the case doubt would inevitably be cast on all scientific theories. Whereby if scientists were not able to observe reality, or if they were to observe it inaccurately, the basis of all scientific theories would be thrown out.It is most fortunate for mankind that the majority of people see this axiom clearly, without the need for instruction or clarity. While keeping in mind the observable axiom we must examine the naturalistic axiom. The naturalistic axiom differs from the observable axiom because unlike the observable axiom, the naturalistic axiom can be tested. This means science can function perfectly without it being comfortably observed by 90% of the population. Still, the means by which life originated is not currently understood.Because of the complicated problems that arise when studying lifes origin the more than we begin to understand it, the more lost we become in respect to it. It seems to elude scientists more and more with each successive study revealing more mysterious problems then the last. In regard to the origin of life, the naturalistic axiom only permits science to investigate theories that exclude things that cannot be tested and proven. That means the study of theories without proof, such as supreme beings will not be considered.This places scientists in a rather precarious position. Not only is the opportunity to study God-related ideas not permitted, but evolutional ideas have not been proven either. Since evolutionists are not willing to abandon the naturalistic axiom they are forced to make one last(a) observation. They must assume that science will inevitably di scover the origin of life in the future. Therefore nothing has been proven-only assumptions have been made. Many scientists however have already accepted that evolution can be proved, yet I have not seen evidence of either theory.It is because of the lack of evidence that I make an observation myself. In other words, I presume to know one thing Our beliefs are of a soulfulnessal nature. They are not to be criticized or debated. Not an ounce of proof is necessary. Neither is the application of any type of axiom. No matter if an individual chooses either of the theories discussed in this paper, or proposes a theory of their own, or decides that no theory is even adequate-whatever one believes can never be wrong.While many would like to impose their beliefs on others, it is not an grateful practice on any level. To attempt to do so has far reaching consequences and many times results in catastrophic illness, heartbreak and death. I dislodge it unconscionable, yet it is occurring in many parts of the world even as this essay is written. Decisions can only be made for oneself. If only every person everywhere would stop to consider this, it is this authors opinion that the world would be a much happier place.
Monday, May 20, 2019
In the absence of a written constitution, the UK fantan is the sovereign law-making power, incapable of limiting its own power, or being confine by an orthogonal power.In the absence of an unwritten, or rather, uncodified constitution, the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy (also called parliamentary sovereignty) emerges as a principle factor granting legitimacy to the exercise of government power within the UK. The doctrine of fantanary supremacy is a set of rules that determine how courts should approach mos of fan tan. This includes rules pertaining to how courts should handle contradictory provisions, or incites, as headspring as the status attached to an Act of fantan. This doctrine recognises Parliament as the ultimately supreme, sovereign law-making system within the UK. The rules that construct the doctrine of Parliamentary Supremacy may be found in a number of sources case law, constitutional conventions, statute law, and the writing of famous academics. The purpose of this essay is to analyse the achievement to which the UK Parliament is the sovereign law-making power, incapable of limiting its own power, or being limited by an external power.Anytime the sovereignty of the UK Parliament is mentioned, Prof A.V. wilys classic, trey-point definition springs to mind. According to Dicey, a) Parliament has the right to flummox or unmake any law whatever, b) no Parliament send away bind a rising Parliament, and c) person or body has the right to knock over an Act of Parliament. The three points overstepn above state the Doctrine of Parliamentary Supremacy (or Sovereignty). Diceys first and last points, pertaining to Parliament having the right to give on any matter and no person or body being able to override those laws, have been strongly confirmed by UK courts. Judges have repeatedly upheld the principles of Parliamentary sovereignty, in cases and quotes.Sir Ivor Jennings at one time stated Parliament can legislate to ban smoking on the streets of Paris Parliament can legally make a man into a woman. In Madzimbamuto v Lardner-Burke (1969), Lord Reid stated It is often said that it would beunconstitutional for the UK parliament to do certain thingsbut that does not mean it is beyond the power of parliament to do such things. Similarly, in ex parte Simms and OBrien (1999), Lord Hoffman stated Parliamentary sovereignty means Parliament canlegslate contrary to fundamental human rights. In Brit Railways Boards v Pickin (1974) and Edinburgh and Dalkeith Rly Co v Wauchope (1842), the courts refused to challenge the validity of an Act of Parliament, regardless of procedural flaws. This gave rise to what is now the Enrolled level Rule- which is courts will not look beyond the Parliamentary roll. In Jackson v AG (2005), the validity of the Act of Parliament 1949 and subsequent Acts passed under that procedure, was questioned. The ideal of Parliamentary supremacy was challenged in obiter statements of three judges however, the Acts were ruled as valid and the sovereignty of Parliament was again confirmed by the courts.Diceys second point relates to Parliament being unable to bind its successors. The mechanism through which courts give effect to this point is known as the doctrine of implied repeal. This requires courts to enforce the latter, and impliedly repeal the former, when two Acts conflict with individually other. This is exemplified in the Ellen Street Estates Ltd v Minister of Health (1934). Thoburn v Sunderland City Council (2002) examined the doctrine of implied repeal much closely and held there is a special class of statutes, called, constitutional statutes, that cannot be impliedly repealed. Rather, they can only be expressly repealed. These constitutional statutes are those defining fundamental rights, such as the Magna Carta and Bill of Rights 1689. The Act of juncture 1706 Act intended to bind future UK Parliaments, but that eventually failed. In MacCormick v Lord commend (1953), it was argued the principle of Parliamentary sovereignty is not recognised in Scottish law. The manner and form crease declares that although there is no limit to the subject matter on which Parliament can legislate, and a Parliament cannot bind its successors, the manner and form in which it legislates may be limited. Special procedures for legislation may be set dismantle by the courts. This was illustrated in Minister of the Interior v Harris (1952).The two factors that challenge the concept of Parliamentary sovereignty arethe ECA 1972 and the HRA 1998. EctJ judgements are binding on all UK courts, and according to S.2 of the ECA 1972, all Acts of Parliament are to be construed according to EU law. EctHR judgements are not strictly binding on the UK coercive Court (formerly House of Lords), but the HRA 1998 calls for all legislation to be interpreted according to Convention rights. If an Act of Parliament is incompatible with the HRA, a declaration of incompatibility will be issued by the courts but the Act will remain in force until Parliament amends it. This declaration of incompatibility, in fact, enphasises the sovereignty of Parliament. In the Jackson case, Lord Hope states the supremacy of Community law limits the sovereignty of the UK Parliament.In summary, it appears the UK Parliament, to a expectant extent, is a sovereign law-making power, incapable of limiting its own power, as evidenced by many cases mentioned above. Parliament can legislate on any subject matter it chooses to, and no body has the authority t override an Act of Parliament. As illustrated by the Enrolled Bill Rule, even procedural flaws cannot invalidate an Act of Parliament. However, it is limited slightly by external powers, such as the ECA 1972, the HRA 1998, and special procedures may be laid down to make legislation difficult. However, the fact that Parliament, of its own free will, chose to pass the ECA and HRA indicates that these Acts do not limit its sovereignty. Par liament can, after all, legislate to undo the above-mentioned Acts and procedures if it chooses to. The phrase what the queen enacts in Parliament is law frame a fairly accurate embodiment of the doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Question Write a critical evaluation of the ro patchce Of Mice and Men in which you consider the siteting, the plot and the authors style as well as what you take the author was trying to get you to think about through the medium of the story.The fresh, Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck is one which I have read recently. The set aside is set in the outskirts of Soledad, California, America locomote about the 1930s. The two main characters of the novel ar George Milton and Lennie Small. George is a small, quick thinking man and is the amount opposite of Lennie whom is big built, and rather unintelligent and simple minded. When reading the book it appears as though he could possibly have a mental dis world power. In that particular time of the centuary is was rather uneven for two men to be travelling around together. The two men migrate from a t receivespeople called Weed, the reason for this macrocosm that Lennie equaled a little girls dress as he equald to touch soft mat erials, this material being the little girls dress. Although the young girl claimed that Lennie had raped her and so George and Lennie fled the town. They worked as labourers and so migrated to a ranch near Soledad.At the ranch we are introduced to whatever other characters. One being Slim, a man who works at the ranch he appears a well respected man and is sort of looked to as the sort of leader of the group. Curley is the bosses son and enjoys picking fights with other men present at ranch and is rather disliked by most. Carlson is another man whom works at the ranch who bring to passs kind of friendly with George and Lennie. Curleys wife is referred to as a tart on the ranch, she in k at one timen to have devoted some men the eye without Curleys knowledge. Later in the novel Curleys wife is killed by Lennie due to her own careless actions when she flirts with him and torments him. She tells him to touch her hair as he likes to touch soft things. When she tells him to stop mu ssing it up and he does not stop she reacts in a way that Lennie is startled and when she begins to scream he begins to panic and be bugger off scared and so he puts his hand round her mouth and lifts her up by the neck and shakes her.We are thusly told that she flops like a fish and when Lennie drops her she land on a pile of hay and it is then we find out she is infact dead. In consequence to this incident Curley and some of the other men attempt to get well Lennie down but George tells them that Lennie has gone South of Soledad but in actual fact he has abandoned them the wrong directions because it is only George that knows where Lennie has really gone. When George finally reaches Lennie he decides that it would be better if he ended Lennies invigoration for him rather than have Lennie being tortured and having to experience pain by the other men when they finally hunted him down.In the novel there are lots of features which run through out the book. The features of the boo k which provide be mainly focused on are the plot, the setting and the authors style.The original feature which I will concentrate on is the plot. Lennie who is more like a young son rather than a responsible adult, he likes to pet soft things for congressman when Slim leads him a whelp because his bitch has a litter of pups he pets it so much that he ends up killing it. An compositors case of the plot is when Lennie is constantly petting the puppy and is warned by George who saysYoull kill him, first thing you know.The above mannikin shows that Lennie was warned to stop petting the pup or it would result in its death but he is likewise persistent to stop. A second example of the plot occurs nearer the end of the novel when Lennie and Curleys wife are in the barnThen Lennie grew angry, Now dont, he said. I dont motive you to yell. You gonna get me in trouble jus like George says you will. Now dont you do that. And she continued to struggle, and her look were wild with terr or. He shook her then, and he was angry with her. Dont you go yellin, he said, and her personify flopped like a fish. And then she was still, for Lennie had broken her neck.This example shows that Lennie was so terrified that he would go to any(prenominal) extent to prevent him from getting into trouble from George. Now that he had killed her he was clearly much calmer now that he had somewhat solved the problem which could have got him into trouble because Curleys wife was no longer an impression to cause any concern. These two examples both show how the plot develops through out the novel.I will now c all over the setting which is one of the many other features running throughout the book. The book was set back in the 1930s at a ranch near Soledad in California, America. The first example I will direct my assist to is from the beginning of the novel and it saysOn the sandy bank low the trees the leaves lie deep and so crisp that a lizard makes a great skittering if he runs am ong them. Rabbits come out of the brush to sit on the sand in the evening, and the damp flats are covered with the iniquity tracks of coons, and the spread pads of dogs on the ranches, and with the split- wedge tracks of deer which come to drink in the dark.This example descriptively tells of the surround in the novel. This is a good example as it describes the scenery in great detail to give a vivid image in the mind.Lastly, the authors style was another of the very many features of the novel. This style was brought to my attention many times due to the great depth of explanation. An example of this isThe little evening breeze blew over the clearing and the leaves rustled and the wind waves flowed up the green pool.This last example is effective as it describes how the wind blew crossways the pool. Most writers try their best to show great depth in their description, whereas Steinbeck shows his remarkable and impressive ability to create a descriptive atmosphere.In conclusion aft er reading the book I think the message that Steinbeck is trying to get across is that people who needed more help than others in those age were treated just the same as any other person. Also I think that Steinbeck would like people to know that America is not incessantly the perfect place to be, as in the novel it shows some examples of racism, unfairness to women and inequality and many more issues. After all everyone has the right to an equal spiritedness and Steinbeck is trying to say that no matter how good people think America is its not always a fair society. I found the book very enjoyable but in some parts a little sad and it is most unusual to any other book which I have read. Towards the end I found myself empathizing with Lennie as I did not agree with the way in which his life was stolen from him when it was not his fault that he had a somewhat mental disability.
The name of the t distributivelyer interviewed is Lucila Reed. She has been command Mathematics in the grade indoctrinate level for over 5 years at the local public school system. She teaches to culturally various classes where many learners have slope only as a sanction language. The teacher has responded extensively to each of the four developmental domains. According to her responses, the most emphasized domain in her class is the cognitive/ gifted domain. She described Mathematics as a discipline-extensive playing field wherein a majority of the input has to come from the teacher.She claimed that this was sort of different from other subjects such(prenominal) as English or Social Studies, where the students can be leave to figure out certain lessons on their own. However, she did say that the subject was also all about provide students to be able to answer questions on their own. Hence, she believes in a standard formula that involves thorough and candid explanation of the learning content followed by enriching activities that would promote the retention of the content.On the physical level, she explained that she constructs easy-to-play games around the lesson she is teaching to get students who thrive on action to realize that math is fun too. She claimed that these activities have been successful in getting such students to participate. Also, such activities help learners who only have English as a second language by giving them opportunities outside of the standard pencil and paper to ascertain and apply the lessons explained.She discover that ESL learners are able to make use of the activities as interpreters that fill in the blanks left by their inefficiencies in English comprehension. Lucila expressed her deep concern for such learners and declared that they should not have to learn English along with Mathematics in a Math class. Hence, she provides measures so that the lesson would be as comprehensible as possible for all her students . She also periodically allows students to work in pairs or small groups.She reflected that she believed students sometimes worked fall apart when they have peers talking to them about the lesson. She concluded that learning is more fun when you can share it. Her proficiency is to pair students performing poorly with those performing puff up to work on a couple of problems. To verify that both of them would be working, each student would have to explain one problem that he or she had solved and the pairs grade would depend on their collective performance.Hence, those who are performing well cannot simply answer both questions for those who are performing poorly and end up explaining the answers so that their partners would understand better. Lucila expounded on how important she believes the emotional domain is to the development of her students. According to her, teachers should not only facilitate content learning but also emotional learning. She mentioned encouragement to be one of the teachers superior tools towards helping their students achieve emotional development.She further explained that by encouraging students who make mistakes to try again, the determination of such students are built up. This building up of determination makes students spend more time in reply more difficult problems and give them better satisfaction once they have found the worsen solutions. e verywhere time, she claimed that students who are adequately motivated would not be easily daunted by making a mistake but would rather use what he or she has learned from the mistake to find the correct answer.Although the interview conducted did not include any questions regarding the subjects academic background involving the developmental theory, it seems from her responses that she is very well versed with it. Her classroom method focuses on cognitive development because that is the nature of her subject. However at the same time, she does not fail in including the other doma ins of development and makes sure that her students develop holistically with respect to the subject matter.She places appropriate emphasis on other domains such as physical, emotional, and social. Although such domains are not explicitly integrated in the content, they are instead assimilated in the way that she delivers instruction and in her methods of reinforcing learning. She provides diverse activities to case students different needs based on their individual differences and then provides support to students who require more care to make certain that they are also able to keep up.These are explicit examples of the teacher conducting activities that verbalize the different developmental domains. In can be expected that Lucilas students are able to pull back and retain lessons effectively because of the support activities and systems provided. Clearly, the interview has revealed that Lucila Reed is an effective teacher who is aware of the different developmental domains and makes use of such awareness adequately in her classes.
Saturday, May 18, 2019
After the Second World War, no one ever though that the father of democracy and the most developed nation in the creation would ever be affected by a crisis arising from financial issues. The growth of US and its position as a beingness power was due to the central role it played in the world fight and the developments it made thereafter.Feared by its enemies and respected by its on the wholeies, the US was and good-tempered is the envy of all nations. Though still the most developed nation and a financial power, the 2008 crisis which was a result of a combination of factors including a fall of sub prime, ill fortune of financial establishments, high oil prices, unbearable rates of inflation and the failure of major industries.The order presented is quite similar to the actual events though there were considerable overlaps. The US deliverance is badly affected, many jobs film been lost and to deal with the effects o the crisis the US will gather up to develop robust econom ic strategies.Any normal society can be divided into two major categories the poor and the rich. This is a categorisation whose basis is resource ability and influence is a true video of the reality on the ground. Happiness is assumed to be directly related to financial ability and all that most people seek in their lives is resource empowerment. A look at the US shows that the generate of failure of its system arose from a single cause which multiplied. If one should fall into the temptation that the route to gratification is amassing wealth at all cost, then they are just as gullible to failure for much(prenominal) an come up was the reason behind failure of sub prime mortgages.Even the rich in the society have their own problem which may even be greater than those of the poor a third world nation is less likely to be faced by a crisis of such magnitude.When one is growing his riches, he should ensure that he develops other support systems for in reality the quest for money has no clear correlation to happiness. Happiness is a state of mind and one cannot justify that by being rich he will live his life a happy person for as at now both Americans and Iraqis are suffering.The US case has been a personal revelation on the disposition of life and what does entail. Life is complex and success does not guarantee one will live a trouble free life. The resilience that the Americans have shown in the face of adversity should be adopted by all people journeying through life. The knowledge that all are susceptible to challenges is important in generating hope which is central in to the entire recovery process.The US approach to the crisis is a jewel to behold. The US acknowledged it had a crisis and took relevant measures that did not necessarily involve the help of other nation or else the mechanisms implemented internally developed systems to deal with the crisis.Call it the personal will to deal with a problem or having the ability to either one should neve r ignore their problems but should acknowledge that a problem go and take relevant measure to deal with the problem. Screaming for help is not always the best approach to dealing with personal problems for we all have infinite personal ability that we must develop in times of plenty and emplo
Friday, May 17, 2019
da Vinci dad Vinci is known for his trouble oneselftings, one of the cunning works Is c each(prenominal)ed Mona Lisa. This work of art is Just a film of the woman without any artistic perspective. solely It Is not just a painting of a woman, because If It was we could not feel mysterious feeling. By looking at at the Mona I-Sis that Leonardo loved which took four years to block we can feel his will to death this planting with perfection, we can feel Is love toward this woman, and we can feel his sadness that come from the fact that she Is already someones wife.Like this, we could feel the emotions that we might not have felt without work of arts. Arts teach us slightly the human emotions. The medicine is one of many subjects of arts, and it is most popular one. There are people that try to music just to party, moreover some music has meaning and teaches us history. For example RB music this music is originated from the African American that was enslaved by white people. The y sang this song to relieve the pain or sing round the pain they felt. By listening to this contour of music, we can l win about he pain they felt and know the history when they were suppressed and enslaved.We can keep reminded that the enslaving people is expectant thing and painful experience that we should not let anyone feel. Music teaches us about the history and likewise the emotions of creator of the music. There might be a people that think art is useless and meaningless, but it is a fact that arts possess meaning and teaches us about the world. By looking at the work of art we can feel what artist wants us to feel, we can learn the history, and we can earn the culture of time period when artist lived or place where art originated from.Also, we can see what kind of emotions that people felt during the time period of when art was created. The art is shows every human can feel, and we essential learn from It. Art Is It Important or Not? By hung meanings in the arts. The w ork of arts includes all the aspect of our society. The arts can express many feelings that we could not feel without it. There is countless Leonardo dad Vinci is known for his paintings, one of the art works is called Mona Lisa.This work of art is Just a painting of the woman without any artistic perspective. But it is not Just a painting of a woman, because if it was we could not feel mysterious feeling. By looking at the Mona Lisa that Leonardo loved which took four years to finish we can feel his will to finish this painting with perfection, we can feel is love toward this woman, and we can feel his sadness that come from the fact that she is people that listen to music Just to party, but some music has meaning and teaches us from it.
Thursday, May 16, 2019
Refutation - see ExampleFirst, Bernstein argues that this social networking site causes irritation through nonsensical postings. Second, Facebook lacks the essence of communicating through ashes language and voice. Third, Facebook users seem to be sharing what is supposed to be personal stuff thus adding to the irritation. Fourth, Facebook users argon narcissistic bores who feel the urgent need to frequently update their friends of the silliest things other people would not redden care about knowing. Fifth, Facebook users who carry shifting personalities cause extreme discomfort to others who know only unmatchable of their identities. Sixth, the endless postings about one(a)s successes tend to bring about jealousy among ones Facebook friends. Lastly, Facebook becomes a tool for otherwise nice people to conveniently express their violence and aggression against those whom they have difficulty confronting.Although Bernsteins arguments above may lend themselves to a certain degree of truth, I static disagree. First, the irritation that some Facebook users experience is only a matter of personal opinion. Not everyone would feel the corresponding way with constant, repetitive messages like those saying I love you so it is almost always a case to case basis. Second, although Facebook lacks the actual face of the other person who communicates, it is certainly faster and more easily accessible compared to face-to-face communication. Third, although we know that some things should remain private, we do not have whatsoever well(p) to impose on anyone what he must keep to himself. Besides, ones privacy is no one elses business. If I would want to blabber endlessly about my break-ups, for example, then no one has any right to stop me from doing that. Fourth, probably what Facebook users who are accused of incessant narcissism actually do is evidently express themselves in a no-holds-barred
Wednesday, May 15, 2019
Auntie Mame - Essay ExampleAuntie Mame does non hide her lifestyle from Patrick, and she takes care of him with as much honesty and assurance, as she possibly can. Mame is appointed to ready Patrick by her brother as the legal guardian, but when Patrick arrives at her house, she is hosting a party for other people. She feels hapless about that, and she asks Norah, Patricks nanny, But why didnt you tell me you were coming today? Id never have been giving this party (10). After Auntie Mame laments on her steal, she happily embraces and kisses him, giving him the reassurance that he is safe. Auntie Mame is also very proud to have Patrick around, as she goes around and introduces him to her guests. Her pride is apparent from her rumor that This is my brothers son and now hes going to be my little boy (13). After Mame welcomes Patrick into her home, she apologizes for her mistake and promises him that they will talk more the following day. This relationship is an exemplary example o f the vastness of honesty, acceptance and assurance to a child. Mame does not want to hide anything from Patrick, and she readily admits that she has made a mistake for forgetting about his arrival and hosting a party. Her behavior also provides him with comfort and makes him feel cared for and safe. Auntie Mame and Patrick not yet share a child-parent relationship, but also a youngster-mentor bond. For instance, Patrick looks up to her aunt to learn the difficult run-in that she uses in her conversations with other people. When Mame finds out that Patrick does not comprehend her words most of the time, she is happy to have the take a chance to teach him or engage in molding a little new life (19). She instructs Patrick to deliver all the words that he does not chthonianstand for later explanation. Patrick seems very excited about this reading process because he immediately wrote down six new words which Auntie Mame said to bell ringer out and forget (19). Patricks father st ated in his will that he would like him to be sent to conservative schools, but Mame thinks that the schools are dull, tiresome and tedious, and she wants him to go to her friends new school since it is Coeducational and completely revolutionary and all classes are held in the nude under ultraviolet rays (20). Many parents or adult guardians give their children a strict education and make it an compulsory and tiresome process, but Mame tries to make education a fun and engaging process. This not only promotes Patricks willingness to learn new information, but it also increases his curiosity in learning about lifes experiences. Even though Mame faces many difficulties especially in regard to her financial problems, she does not give up taking care of Patrick. For instance, during the Great Depression, Mames investments fail, and she can only have two hundred dollars a month, so she has to go to work in order to keep Patrick in that wretched St. server school (40). Mame finds and e ngages in many jobs during this period, but none of them lasts long. For example, Mame becomes a copywriter at Vanity Fair and is fired due to inaccurate writing she also works as a reader, but she loses the manuscript and gets fired. Mame keeps on the job(p) and finding jobs to sustain her family until she meets and falls in love with Beau Burnside, who is a